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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10–K 
    (Mark One)
x ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES
EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016
OR
o TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES
EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission file number: 000-50976
HURON CONSULTING GROUP INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
01-0666114
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
550 West Van Buren Street
Chicago, Illinois 60607
(Address of principal executive offices and zip code)
(312) 583-8700
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code) 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share
 
NASDAQ Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  x    No  o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes  o    No  x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  x    No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes  x    No  o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of the Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer   x
 
Accelerated filer   o
 
Non-accelerated filer  o
 
Smaller reporting company  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes  o    No  x
The aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates as of June 30, 2016 (the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter) was approximately $1,290,500,000.
As of February 15, 2017, 21,728,400 shares of the registrant’s common stock, par value $0.01 per share, were outstanding.
Documents Incorporated By Reference
Portions of the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement to be filed with Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of its fiscal year are incorporated by reference into Part III.
 
 


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HURON CONSULTING GROUP INC.
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
FOR FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2016
 
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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
In this Annual Report on Form 10-K, unless the context otherwise requires, the terms “Huron,” “company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Huron Consulting Group Inc. and its subsidiaries.
Statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K that are not historical in nature, including those concerning the Company’s current expectations about its future requirements and needs, are “forward-looking” statements as defined in Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) and the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements are identified by words such as “may,” “should,” “expects,” “provides,” “anticipates,” “assumes,” “can,” “will,” “meets,” “could,” “likely,” “intends,” “might,” “predicts,” “seeks,” “would,” “believes,” “estimates,” “plans,” “continues,” or “outlook” or similar expressions. These forward-looking statements reflect our current expectations about our future requirements and needs, results, levels of activity, performance, or achievements. Some of the factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the forward-looking statements contained herein include, without limitation: failure to achieve expected utilization rates, billing rates, and the number of revenue-generating professionals; inability to expand or adjust our service offerings in response to market demands; our dependence on renewal of client-based services; dependence on new business and retention of current clients and qualified personnel; failure to maintain third-party provider relationships and strategic alliances; inability to license technology to and from third parties; the impairment of goodwill; various factors related to income and other taxes; difficulties in successfully integrating the businesses we acquire and achieving expected benefits from such acquisitions; failure to complete the pending acquisition of Innosight Holdings, LLC or any material delay in the timing of such acquisition; risks relating to privacy, information security, and related laws and standards; and a general downturn in market conditions. These forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and other factors, including, among others, those described under Item 1A. "Risk Factors," that may cause actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from any anticipated results, levels of activity, performance, or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. We disclaim any obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements as a result of new information or future events, or for any other reason.
PART I 
ITEM 1.
BUSINESS.
OVERVIEW
Huron is a global professional services firm committed to achieving sustainable results in partnership with clients. We bring a depth of expertise in strategy, operations, advisory services, technology and analytics to drive lasting and measurable results in the healthcare, higher education, life sciences and commercial sectors. Through focus, passion and collaboration, we provide guidance and solutions to support organizations as they contend with the change transforming their industries and businesses.
Huron is headquartered in Chicago, Illinois, with additional locations in the United States in California, Colorado, the District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Massachusetts, Michigan, New York, Oregon, Texas, Wisconsin and abroad in Canada and India.
2016 Acquisitions
MyRounding Solutions, LLC
On February 1, 2016, we completed the acquisition of MyRounding Solutions, LLC ("MyRounding"), a Denver, Colorado-based firm specializing in digital health solutions to improve patient care. The MyRounding application is designed to standardize, automate and track rounding activity, allowing nurses and staff to improve the care and experience of patients in real time. MyRounding expands our software and consulting solutions and strengthens our transformation services for healthcare providers. The results of operations of MyRounding have been included in our consolidated financial statements and the results of operations of our Healthcare segment from the date of acquisition.
ADI Strategies, Inc.
On May 1, 2016, we completed the acquisition of the U.S. assets of ADI Strategies, Inc. ("ADI Strategies"), a leading enterprise performance management, risk management and business intelligence firm focused on implementing the Oracle enterprise application suite. The results of operations of ADI Strategies have been included in our consolidated financial statements and the results of operations of our Business Advisory segment from the date of acquisition. We are also in the process of acquiring the international assets of ADI Strategies in Dubai and India, for which we currently expect to sign and close in the first half of 2017.
Healthcare Services Management, Inc.
On August 1, 2016, we completed the acquisition of Healthcare Services Management, Inc. ("HSM Consulting"), a firm specializing in healthcare information technology and management consulting. The results of operations of HSM Consulting have been included in our consolidated financial statements and results of operations of our Healthcare segment from the date of acquisition.

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See Note 4 "Acquisitions" within our consolidated financial statements for further information regarding our recent acquisitions.
OUR SERVICES
We provide professional services through three operating segments: Healthcare, Education and Life Sciences, and Business Advisory. For the year ended December 31, 2016, we derived 58%, 25%, and 17% of our revenues from Healthcare, Education and Life Sciences, and Business Advisory, respectively. During 2015, we wound down the businesses within our All Other operating segment, which consisted of our public sector consulting practice and our foreign consulting operations based in the Middle East. We did not generate any revenues from our All Other segment during 2016.
For further financial information on our segment results, see Part II—Item 7. "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and Note 18 “Segment Information” within the notes to our consolidated financial statements.
Healthcare
Our Healthcare segment provides advisory services - from strategy setting through implementation - in the areas of organizational and resource alignment, clinical transformation, financial and operational performance, patient and caregiver engagement, and technology implementation and optimization. We serve national and regional hospitals and integrated health systems, academic medical centers, community hospitals and medical groups. Our solutions help clients evolve and adapt to the rapidly changing healthcare environment and achieve growth, optimize performance, enhance profitability, improve quality and clinical outcomes, and drive physician, patient and employee engagement across the enterprise.
This segment’s primary service lines include:
Performance Improvement. Our Performance Improvement professionals collaborate with clients to improve operations and enhance performance. We help clients deliver predictable and sustainable revenue streams, improve clinical documentation, increase profitability, optimize clinical performance, improve quality and outcomes, and align staff across the continuum of care. We help clients improve clinical and administrative operations across the provider enterprise through our comprehensive suite of technology-enabled solutions.
Advancing Solutions. Our Advancing Solutions professionals provide strategy, advisory and technology services to our clients to improve patient and staff engagement and satisfaction, enable high-performing medical groups, optimize patients' access to care, design and implement clinical and operational technology strategies, and support federal and government-owned provider organizations to drive efficiency and improve clinical care.
Education and Life Sciences
Our Education and Life Sciences segment provides management consulting and technology solutions to the higher education, academic medical center, pharmaceutical and medical device, biotechnology and research industries. We partner with clients to address challenges relating to business and technology strategy, financial management, operational and organizational effectiveness, research administration, and regulatory compliance.
This segment’s primary service lines include:
Higher Education. Our Higher Education professionals work with colleges and universities to advance their core missions by solving their most complex strategic, financial, operational, and technology problems. Our institutional strategy, market research, budgeting and financial management, business operations, and student lifecycle management solutions align missions with business priorities, improve quality, and reduce costs institution-wide. Our technology strategy, enterprise applications, and analytic solutions, including Oracle and Workday, transform and optimize operations, deliver time and cost savings, and enhance the student experience. Our research enterprise solutions assist clients in identifying and implementing institutional research strategy, optimizing clinical research operations, improving financial management and cost reimbursement, improving service to faculty, and mitigating risk compliance. Huron is a Platinum level member of the Oracle PartnerNetwork (OPN) and a Workday Services Partner.
Life Sciences. Our Life Sciences professionals provide strategic, operational and compliance solutions to help pharmaceutical, medical device, and biotechnology companies deliver more value to patients, payers, and providers and comply with regulations. We advise clients in the areas of corporate and financial strategy, compliance and operations, reimbursement and access strategy, commercial contracting strategy, R&D and product strategy commercial segmentation, fair market value analysis, lifecycle management, litigation and investigations, government pricing and transparency reporting, auditing and monitoring, and overall business process improvement.

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Business Advisory
Our Business Advisory segment provides services to middle market and large organizations, not-for-profit organizations, lending institutions, law firms, investment banks, and private equity firms. We assist clients in a broad range of industries and across the spectrum from healthy, well-capitalized companies to organizations in transition as well as creditors, equity owners, and other key constituents.
This segment’s primary service lines include:
Enterprise Solutions and Analytics. Our Enterprise Solutions and Analytics professionals deliver technology and analytic solutions that enable organizations to manage and optimize their financial performance, operational efficiency, and client or stakeholder experience. Our expertise in full-service enterprise performance management (EPM), enterprise resource planning (ERP), business intelligence and analytics, customer relationship management (CRM), and data management services helps clients identify and execute on business and technology strategies to drive results and gain a competitive advantage. Huron is a Platinum level member of the Oracle PartnerNetwork (OPN) and a Gold level consulting partner with Salesforce.com.
Business Advisory. Our Business Advisory professionals resolve complex business issues and enhances client enterprise value through a suite of services including capital advisory, transaction advisory, operational improvement, restructuring and turnaround, valuation, and dispute advisory. We improve operations or capital structures for businesses performing at less than optimal levels, assess the short-term and long-term prospects of potential acquisition and divestiture opportunities, and provide independent valuation and advisory services to assist clients in making informed decisions for transaction, tax, or litigation purposes. Securities transactions are provided by our registered broker-dealer Huron Transaction Advisory LLC, a member of FINRA.
OUR CLIENTS AND INDUSTRIES
We provide professional services to a wide variety of both financially sound and distressed organizations, including healthcare organizations, leading academic and research institutions, Fortune 500 and mid-sized companies, and governmental entities. In 2016, we served over 1,000 clients, including over 400 new clients.
Our clients are in a broad array of industries, including healthcare, education, pharmaceutical and medical device, financial services, energy and utilities, retail, aerospace, automotive, technology, telecommunications, consumer products, governmental, metals and mining, engineering and construction, hospitality and gaming, logistics, and manufacturing.
EMPLOYEES
Our success depends on our ability to attract, retain, and develop highly talented professionals by creating a work environment where both employees and teams thrive and individuals are rewarded not only for their own contributions but also for the success of our organization. To accomplish these goals and recognize high performance, we have developed comprehensive employee programs incorporating training and development opportunities, competitive compensation, performance management, benefits, and wellness, as well as corporate social responsibility, facilitated through our Huron Helping Hands program and the diversity and inclusion council.
Our employee population is divided into two groups: client-serving and support. As of December 31, 2016, we had 2,818 full-time employees, including 129 client-serving managing directors. Our client-serving employees serve as critical business advisors collaborating with clients to help solve their most complex business problems. Our managing directors are the key drivers of growth in our business, generating new revenue streams from existing and new clients. They help enhance our market reputation by partnering with clients as advisors and engagement team leaders. Internally, they create our intellectual capital, develop our people, and foster our culture. Our senior directors, directors, and managers manage day-to-day client relationships and oversee the delivery and quality of our work product. Our associates and analysts gather and organize data, conduct detailed analyses, and prepare presentations that synthesize and distill information to support recommendations we deliver to clients. Our support employees include our senior management team as well as professionals who provide sales support, methodology creation, software development, and corporate functions consisting of our facilities, finance and accounting, human resources, information technology, legal, and marketing teams. These employees provide strategic direction and support that enables the success of our client-serving employees. At December 31, 2016, our support team was led by 23 managing directors, executives, and corporate vice presidents.
In addition to our full-time client-serving employees, we engage contractors on an as-needed basis to provide highly unique skill sets that are not required to be staffed on a full-time basis.
Supporting our professionals' career progression is critical to our employee retention and engagement. Our learning and organizational effectiveness team facilitates structured orientation and training curriculum for new campus hires and experienced employees to help develop and integrate them more effectively into the Company. Leadership professional development programs are offered to recently promoted employees to support their transition to and success in a new role with broader responsibility. In addition to these milestone programs, we offer a variety of leadership development programs for those we deem capable of taking on broader roles in the organization at the senior director and managing director level. We also provide a variety of continuing education opportunities to all of our employees,

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including formal classroom environments, on-line courses, and webinars to further develop employees’ technical knowledge, skill sets and ability to work collaboratively and coach others. We encourage our employees to enhance their professional skills through outside courses that certify their technical skills and to pursue certain advanced degrees. Employees are assigned internal performance coaches to help them establish expectations that are reviewed quarterly, including identifying opportunities for professional development, formal training, and technical skill certifications.
Our compensation philosophy focuses on rewarding and retaining our high performing employees. To accomplish this, we offer employees a competitive base salary, performance incentives, and benefits.
Our incentive compensation plan is designed to recognize and reward performance of both the organization and individuals and to ensure we properly recognize and retain our top performers. We take both practice and Company financial performance into consideration in the determination of bonus pool funding. At the practice level, the annual bonus pool is funded based on achievement of its annual financial goals. The board of directors then reviews and approves the total incentive compensation pool for all practices in the context of the Company’s overall financial performance. Individual bonus awards are based on the practice’s financial performance, individual bonus targets, and the individual’s performance as evaluated through our performance management process. The intent of the incentive compensation plan is to differentiate rewards based on individual performance, ensuring that our top performers for the year receive incentives that are commensurate with their contributions, enabling us to retain them and continue to provide our clients with exceptional service. The incentive compensation plan for our named executive officers is funded based on a blend of achievement of financial goals and strategic initiatives.
Managing directors’ individual compensation levels, including base salary and target incentive awards, are set to align with the value of their expected contributions to the organization. As the key drivers of the organization’s success, their compensation is designed to include equity awards as a core component. The use of equity is intended to encourage retention, align the interests of our managing directors with shareholders, and help build wealth over a managing director's career at Huron through annual grants as well as stock price appreciation.
Our benefit and wellness programs are designed to be both comprehensive and tailored to our employee population. Our paid time off policy allows for flexibility and our travel reward program recognizes the significant travel commitment of our workforce. Our wellness benefits are aimed at supporting our employees in maintaining a healthy lifestyle which is beneficial to the employee and the Company, given the demanding nature of the work. Through these unique benefits, as well as our health and welfare plans, retirement benefits, stock purchase plan, and other standard benefit programs, we provide a core sense of security to our employees.
Our corporate social responsibility efforts are designed to support an individual’s charitable interests while also providing a venue for our employees to come together to make an impact in the communities in which we live and work. In addition, the diversity and inclusion council supports the needs of our growing employee population through employee resource groups that provide corporate-wide educational opportunities, build awareness, celebrate our differences, develop mentoring relationships, and ensure we are fostering a welcoming and nurturing environment for all employees.
BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING
Our business development and marketing activities are aimed at cultivating relationships, driving demand, generating leads, and building a strong brand reputation with hospital, health system, and university administrators; offices of the C-suite; and senior level influencers and decision makers of middle market and large corporate organizations. We believe excellent service delivery to clients is critical to building and maintaining relationships and our brand reputation, and we emphasize the importance of client service to all of our employees.
Currently, we generate most of our new business opportunities through the combination of relationships our managing directors have with individuals working in hospitals and health systems, academic and research institutions, and corporations, and marketing lead generation activities. We also view cross-selling as a key component in building our business. Often, the client relationship of a managing director in one area of our business leads to opportunities in another area. All of our managing directors understand their roles in ongoing relationship and business development, which is reinforced through our compensation and incentive programs. We actively seek to identify new business opportunities and frequently receive referrals and repeat business from past and current clients. In addition, to complement the business development efforts of our managing directors, we have dedicated business development professionals who are focused exclusively on developing client relationships and generating new business.
COMPETITION
The professional services industry is extremely competitive, highly fragmented, and constantly evolving. The industry includes a large number of participants with a variety of skills and industry expertise, including other strategy, business operations, technology, and financial consulting firms; general management consulting firms; the consulting practices of major accounting firms; technical and economic advisory firms; regional and specialty consulting firms; and the internal professional resources of organizations. We compete with a large number of service and technology providers in all of our segments. Our competitors vary, depending on the particular practice area, and we expect to continue to face competition from new market entrants.

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We believe the principal competitive factors in our market include reputation, the ability to attract and retain top talent, and the capacity to manage engagements effectively to drive high value to clients. There is also competition on price, although to a lesser extent due to the criticality of the issues that many of our services address. Some competitors have a greater geographic footprint, broader international presence, and more resources than we do, but we believe our reputation and ability to deliver high-value, quality service and measurable results to our clients across a balanced portfolio of services and attract and retain employees with broad capabilities and deep industry expertise enable us to compete favorably in the professional services marketplace.
AVAILABLE INFORMATION
Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act are available free of charge on the investor relations page of our website, www.huronconsultinggroup.com, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. The content posted on our website is not incorporated by reference into this report or any other reports filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. Any materials we file with the SEC may be read and copied at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, D.C. 20549. Information on the operation of the Public Reference Room may be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC maintains an Internet site (http://www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC.
ITEM 1A.
RISK FACTORS.
The following discussion of risk factors may be important to understanding the statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K or elsewhere. The following information should be read in conjunction with Part II—Item 7. "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Discussions about the important operational risks that our business encounters can be found in Part II—Item 7. "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”
An inability to retain our senior management team and other managing directors would be detrimental to the success of our business.
We rely heavily on our senior management team, our practice leaders, and other managing directors; our ability to retain them is particularly important to our future success. Given the highly specialized nature of our services, the senior management team must have a thorough understanding of our service offerings as well as the skills and experience necessary to manage an organization consisting of a diverse group of professionals. In addition, we rely on our senior management team and other managing directors to generate and market our business. Further, our senior management’s and other managing directors’ personal reputations and relationships with our clients are a critical element in obtaining and maintaining client engagements. Although we enter into non-solicitation agreements with our senior management team and other managing directors, we generally do not enter into non-competition agreements. Accordingly, members of our senior management team and our other managing directors are not contractually prohibited from leaving or joining one of our competitors, and some of our clients could choose to use the services of that competitor instead of our services. If one or more members of our senior management team or our other managing directors leave and we cannot replace them with a suitable candidate quickly, we could experience difficulty in securing and successfully completing engagements and managing our business properly, which could harm our business prospects and results of operations.
Our inability to hire and retain talented people in an industry where there is great competition for talent could have a serious negative effect on our prospects and results of operations.
Our business involves the delivery of professional services and is highly labor-intensive. Our success depends largely on our general ability to attract, develop, motivate, and retain highly skilled professionals. Further, we must successfully maintain the right mix of professionals with relevant experience and skill sets as we continue to grow, as we expand into new service offerings, and as the market evolves. The loss of a significant number of our professionals, the inability to attract, hire, develop, train, and retain additional skilled personnel, or failure to maintain the right mix of professionals could have a serious negative effect on us, including our ability to manage, staff, and successfully complete our existing engagements and obtain new engagements. Qualified professionals are in great demand, and we face significant competition for both senior and junior professionals with the requisite credentials and experience. Our principal competition for talent comes from other consulting firms and accounting firms, as well as from organizations seeking to staff their internal professional positions. Many of these competitors may be able to offer significantly greater compensation and benefits or more attractive lifestyle choices, career paths, or geographic locations than we do. Therefore, we may not be successful in attracting and retaining the skilled consultants we require to conduct and expand our operations successfully. Increasing competition for these revenue-generating professionals may also significantly increase our labor costs, which could negatively affect our margins and results of operations.

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Additional hiring, departures, business acquisitions and dispositions could disrupt our operations, increase our costs or otherwise harm our business.
Our business strategy is dependent in part upon our ability to grow by hiring individuals or groups of individuals and by acquiring complementary businesses. However, we may be unable to identify, hire, acquire, or successfully integrate new employees and acquired businesses without substantial expense, delay, or other operational or financial obstacles. From time to time, we will evaluate the total mix of services we provide and we may conclude that businesses may not achieve the results we previously expected. Competition for future hiring and acquisition opportunities in our markets could increase the compensation we offer to potential employees or the prices we pay for businesses we wish to acquire. In addition, we may be unable to achieve the financial, operational, and other benefits we anticipate from any hiring or acquisition, as well as any disposition, including those we have completed so far. New acquisitions could also negatively impact existing practices and cause current employees to depart. Hiring additional employees or acquiring businesses could also involve a number of additional risks, including:
the diversion of management’s time, attention, and resources from managing and marketing our Company;
the failure to retain key acquired personnel or existing personnel who may view the acquisition unfavorably;
the potential loss of clients of acquired businesses;
the need to compensate new employees while they wait for their restrictive covenants with other institutions to expire;
the potential need to raise significant amounts of capital to finance a transaction or the potential issuance of equity securities that could be dilutive to our existing stockholders;
increased costs to improve, coordinate, or integrate managerial, operational, financial, and administrative systems;
the potential assumption of liabilities of an acquired business;
the inability to attain the expected synergies with an acquired business;
the usage of earn-outs based on the future performance of our business acquisitions may deter the acquired company from fully integrating into our existing business;
the perception of inequalities if different groups of employees are eligible for different benefits and incentives or are subject to different policies and programs; and
difficulties in integrating diverse backgrounds and experiences of consultants, including if we experience a transition period for newly hired consultants that results in a temporary drop in our utilization rates or margins.
All of our acquisitions have been accounted for as purchases, some of which involved purchase prices well in excess of tangible asset values, resulting in the creation of a significant amount of goodwill and other intangible assets. Under generally accepted accounting principles, we do not amortize goodwill or intangible assets acquired in a business combination that are determined to have indefinite useful lives, but instead review them annually (or more frequently if impairment indicators arise) for impairment. To the extent that we determine that such an asset has been impaired, we will write down its carrying value on our balance sheet and book a non-cash impairment charge in our statement of earnings. If, as a result of acquisitions or otherwise, the amount of intangible assets being amortized increases, so will our amortization charges in future periods.
Also, selling practices and shutting down operations present similar challenges in a service business. Dispositions not only require management’s time, but they can impair existing relationships with clients or otherwise affect client satisfaction, particularly in situations where the divestiture eliminates only part of the complement of consulting services provided to a client. Dispositions may also involve continued financial involvement, as we may be required to retain responsibility for, or agree to indemnify buyers against, liabilities related to a business sold. For example, in connection with the sale of our Huron Legal segment to Consilio, Inc., which was completed on December 31, 2015, we have contractually agreed to indemnify the buyer against certain liabilities. If we fail to successfully address these risks, our ability to compete may be impaired and our results of operations may be adversely affected.
Our goodwill and other intangible assets represent a substantial amount of our total assets, and we may be required to recognize a non-cash impairment charge for these assets if the performance of one or more of our reporting units falls below our expectations.
Our total assets reflect a substantial amount of intangible assets, primarily goodwill. At December 31, 2016, goodwill and other intangible assets totaled $881.2 million, or 76%, of our total assets. The goodwill results from our acquisitions, representing the excess of the fair value of consideration transferred over the fair value of the net assets acquired. We test goodwill for impairment, at the reporting unit level, annually and whenever events or circumstances make it more likely than not that an impairment may have occurred. If future operating performance

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at one or more of our reporting units were to fall below current expectations, we could be required to recognize a non-cash charge to earnings for goodwill or other intangible asset impairment.
Over the past twelve months, our Healthcare segment has experienced four consecutive quarters of declining revenues, with fourth quarter 2016 revenues being the lowest since the first quarter of 2015. This decline is primarily driven by softness in our revenue cycle and cost and clinical solutions. This softness is attributable to decreased demand for our services, the winding down of some of our larger projects and a trend toward smaller projects, as well as fewer large integrated projects. In light of these challenges, several initiatives have been undertaken to improve the segment's financial performance, including repositioning our solutions to address the most critical needs of our clients, the expansion of our existing services such as those in our Studer Group, strategy, physician and technology offerings, as well as workforce reductions to better align resources with market demand. As of November 30, 2016, based on the results of the first step of the Healthcare goodwill impairment analysis, the reporting unit's fair value exceeded its carrying value by 11%. In the event that the financial performance of the Healthcare segment does not meet our expectations during 2017, we may be required to perform an interim impairment analysis with respect to the carrying value of goodwill for this reporting unit prior to our annual test, and based on the outcome of that analysis, could be required to take a non-cash impairment charge as a result of any such test.
Our Enterprise Solutions and Analytics reporting unit was established with the acquisition of Blue Stone International, LLC in 2013. Since that time, we have completed four additional business acquisitions, most recently the acquisition of ADI Strategies in May 2016. We record the assets acquired and liabilities assumed in business combinations, including identifiable intangible assets, at their estimated fair values as of the acquisition date, and goodwill is recorded as the excess of the fair value of consideration transferred, including any contingent consideration, over the fair value of the net asset acquired. Therefore, the initial accounting for an acquisition results in its fair value equaling its carrying value. As of November 30, 2016, based on the results of the first step of the Enterprise Solutions and Analytics goodwill impairment analysis, the reporting unit’s fair value exceeded its carrying value by 11%. While the Enterprise Solutions and Analytics reporting unit’s 2016 revenue growth was in line with our expectations, and we expect revenue to continue to grow in 2017, due to this reporting unit’s relatively low headroom, in the event that the financial performance of the reporting unit does not meet our expectations during 2017, we may be required to perform an interim impairment analysis with respect to the carrying value of goodwill for this reporting unit prior to our annual test, and based on the outcome of that analysis, could be required to take a non-cash impairment charge as a result of any such test.
Refer to “Critical Accounting Policies” within Part II - Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and Note 5 “Goodwill and Intangible Assets” within the notes to our consolidated financial statements for further discussion of business combinations, goodwill, intangible assets, and impairment tests performed in 2016.
Changes in capital markets, legal or regulatory requirements, and general economic or other factors beyond our control could reduce demand for our services, in which case our revenues and profitability could decline.
A number of factors outside of our control affect demand for our services. These include:
fluctuations in U.S. and global economies;
the U.S. or global financial markets and the availability, costs, and terms of credit;
changes in laws and regulations; and
other economic factors and general business conditions.
We are not able to predict the positive or negative effects that future events or changes to the U.S. or global economy, financial markets, or regulatory and business environment could have on our operations.
If we are unable to manage fluctuations in our business successfully, we may not be able to sustain profitability.
We have grown significantly since we commenced operations and have increased the number of our full-time professionals from 249 in 2002 to 2,818 as of December 31, 2016. Additionally, our considerable growth has placed demands on our management and our internal systems, procedures, and controls and will continue to do so in the near future. To successfully manage growth, we must periodically adjust and strengthen our operating, financial, accounting, and other systems, procedures, and controls, which could increase our costs and may adversely affect our gross profits and our ability to sustain profitability if we do not generate increased revenues to offset the costs. As a public company, our information and control systems must enable us to prepare accurate and timely financial information and other required disclosures. If we discover deficiencies in our existing information and control systems that impede our ability to satisfy our reporting requirements, we must successfully implement improvements to those systems in an efficient and timely manner.
Although we have generated positive earnings since we became a public company, we may not sustain profitability in the future. Additionally, the nature of our services and the general economic environment make it difficult to predict our future operating results. To sustain profitability, we must:

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attract, integrate, retain, and motivate highly qualified professionals;
achieve and maintain adequate utilization and suitable billing rates for our revenue-generating professionals;
expand our existing relationships with our clients and identify new clients in need of our services;
successfully resell engagements and secure new engagements every year;
maintain and enhance our brand recognition; and
adapt quickly to meet changes in our markets, our business mix, the economic environment, the credit markets, and competitive developments.
Our financial results could suffer if we are unable to achieve or maintain adequate utilization and suitable billing rates for our consultants.
Our profitability depends to a large extent on the utilization and billing rates of our professionals. Utilization of our professionals is affected by a number of factors, including:
the number and size of client engagements;
the timing of the commencement, completion and termination of engagements, which in many cases is unpredictable;
our ability to transition our consultants efficiently from completed engagements to new engagements;
the hiring of additional consultants because there is generally a transition period for new consultants that results in a temporary drop in our utilization rate;
unanticipated changes in the scope of client engagements;
our ability to forecast demand for our services and thereby maintain an appropriate level of consultants; and
conditions affecting the industries in which we practice as well as general economic conditions.
The billing rates of our consultants that we are able to charge are also affected by a number of factors, including:
our clients’ perception of our ability to add value through our services;
the market demand for the services we provide;
an increase in the number of clients in the government sector;
introduction of new services by us or our competitors;
our competition and the pricing policies of our competitors; and
current economic conditions.
If we are unable to achieve and maintain adequate overall utilization as well as maintain or increase the billing rates for our consultants, our financial results could materially suffer. In addition, our consultants oftentimes perform services at the physical locations of our clients. If there are natural disasters, disruptions to travel and transportation or problems with communications systems, our ability to perform services for, and interact with, our clients at their physical locations may be negatively impacted which could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Our quarterly results of operations have fluctuated in the past and may continue to fluctuate in the future as a result of certain factors, some of which may be outside of our control.
A key element of our strategy is to market our products and services directly to certain large organizations, such as health systems and acute care hospitals, and to increase the number of our products and services utilized by existing clients. The sales cycle for some of our products and services is often lengthy and may involve significant commitment of client personnel. As a consequence, the commencement date of a client engagement often cannot be accurately forecasted. As discussed below, certain of our client contracts contain terms that result in revenue that is deferred and cannot be recognized until the occurrence of certain events. As a result, the period of time between contract signing and recognition of associated revenue may be lengthy, and we are not able to predict with certainty the period in which revenue will be recognized.

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Certain of our contracts provide that some portion or all of our fees are at risk if our services do not result in the achievement of certain performance targets. To the extent that any revenue is contingent upon the achievement of a performance target, we only recognize revenue upon client confirmation that the performance targets have been achieved. If a client fails to provide such confirmation in a timely manner, our ability to recognize revenue will be delayed.
Fee discounts, pressure to not increase or even decrease our rates, and less advantageous contract terms could result in the loss of clients, lower revenues and operating income, higher costs, and less profitable engagements. More discounts or write-offs than we expect in any period would have a negative impact on our results of operations.
Other fluctuations in our quarterly results of operations may be due to a number of other factors, some of which are not within our control, including:
the timing and volume of client invoices processed and payments received, which may affect the fees payable to us under certain of our engagements;
client decisions regarding renewal or termination of their contracts;
the amount and timing of costs related to the development or acquisition of technologies or businesses; and
unforeseen legal expenses, including litigation and other settlement gains or losses.
We base our annual employee bonus expense upon our expected annual adjusted earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (“EBITDA”) for that year. If we experience lower adjusted EBITDA in a quarter without a corresponding change to our full-year adjusted EBITDA expectation, our estimated bonus expense will not be reduced, which will have a negative impact on our quarterly results of operations for that quarter. Our quarterly results of operations may vary significantly and period-to-period comparisons of our results of operations may not be meaningful. The results of one quarter should not be relied upon as an indication of future performance. If our quarterly results of operations fall below the expectations of securities analysts or investors, the price of our common stock could decline substantially.
Revenues from our performance-based engagements are difficult to predict, and the timing and extent of recovery of our costs is uncertain.
We have engagement agreements under which our fees include a significant performance-based component. Performance-based fees are contingent on the achievement of specific measures, such as our clients meeting cost-saving or other contractually-defined goals. The achievement of these contractually-defined goals may be subject to acknowledgment by the client and is often impacted by factors outside of our control, such as the actions of the client or other third parties. Because performance-based fees are contingent, revenues on such engagements, which are recognized when all revenue recognition criteria are met, are not certain and the timing of receipt is difficult to predict and may not occur evenly throughout the year. The percentage of our revenues derived from performance-based fees for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015, and 2014, was 8.9%, 8.7%, and 17.2%, respectively. A greater number of performance-based fee arrangements may result in increased volatility in our working capital requirements and greater variations in our quarter-to-quarter results, which could affect the price of our common stock. In addition, an increase in the proportion of performance-based fee arrangements may temporarily offset the positive effect on our operating results from an increase in our utilization rate until the related revenues are recognized.

The profitability of our fixed-fee engagements with clients may not meet our expectations if we underestimate the cost of these engagements.
When making proposals for fixed-fee engagements, we estimate the costs and timing for completing the engagements. These estimates reflect our best judgment regarding the efficiencies of our methodologies and consultants as we plan to deploy them on engagements. Any increased or unexpected costs or unanticipated delays in connection with the performance of fixed-fee engagements, including delays caused by factors outside our control, could make these contracts less profitable or unprofitable, which would have an adverse effect on our profit margin. For the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015, and 2014, fixed-fee engagements represented 47.4%, 58.0%, and 50.3% of our revenues, respectively.
Our business is becoming increasingly dependent on information technology and will require additional investments in order to grow and meet the demands of our clients.
We depend on the use of sophisticated technologies and systems. Some of our practices provide services that are increasingly dependent on the use of software applications and systems that we do not own and could become unavailable. Moreover, our technology platforms will require continuing investments by us in order to expand existing service offerings and develop complementary services. Our future success depends on our ability to adapt our services and infrastructure while continuing to improve the performance, features, and reliability of our services in response to the evolving demands of the marketplace.

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Adverse changes to our relationships with key third-party vendors, or in the business of our key third-party vendors, could unfavorably impact our business.
A portion of our services and solutions depend on technology or software provided by third-party vendors. Some of these third-party vendors refer potential clients to us, and others require that we obtain their permission prior to accessing their software while performing services for our clients. These third-party vendors could terminate their relationship with us without cause and with little or no notice, which could limit our service offerings and harm our financial condition and operating results. In addition, if a third-party vendor’s business changes or is reduced, that could adversely affect our business. Moreover, if third-party technology or software that is important to our business does not continue to be available or utilized within the marketplace, or if the services that we provide to clients is no longer relevant in the marketplace, our business may be unfavorably impacted.
We could experience system failures, service interruptions, or security breaches that could negatively impact our business.
Our organization is comprised of employees who work on matters throughout the United States and overseas. Our technology platform is a “virtual office” from which we all operate. We may be subject to disruption to our operating systems from technology events that are beyond our control, including the possibility of failures at third-party data centers, disruptions to the Internet, natural disasters, power losses, and malicious attacks. In addition, despite the implementation of security measures, our infrastructure and operating systems, including the Internet and related systems, may be vulnerable to physical break-ins, hackers, improper employee or contractor access, computer viruses, programming errors, denial-of-service attacks, or other attacks by third parties seeking to disrupt operations or misappropriate information or similar physical or electronic breaches of security. While we have taken and are taking reasonable steps to prevent and mitigate the damage of such events, including implementation of system security measures, information backup, and disaster recovery processes, those steps may not be effective and there can be no assurance that any such steps can be effective against all possible risks. We will need to continue to invest in technology in order to achieve redundancies necessary to prevent service interruptions. Access to our systems as a result of a security breach, the failure of our systems, or the loss of data could result in legal claims or proceedings, liability, or regulatory penalties and disrupt operations, which could adversely affect our business and financial results.
Our reputation could be damaged and we could incur additional liabilities if we fail to protect client and employee data through our own accord or if our information systems are breached.
We rely on information technology systems to process, transmit, and store electronic information and to communicate among our locations around the world and with our clients, partners, and employees. The breadth and complexity of this infrastructure increases the potential risk of security breaches which could lead to potential unauthorized disclosure of confidential information.
In providing services to clients, we may manage, utilize, and store sensitive or confidential client or employee data, including personal data and protected health information. As a result, we are subject to numerous laws and regulations designed to protect this information, such as the U.S. federal and state laws governing the protection of health or other personally identifiable information, including the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), and international laws such as the European Union Directive on Data Protection. In addition, many states, U.S. federal governmental authorities and non-U.S. jurisdictions have adopted, proposed or are considering adopting or proposing, additional data security and/or data privacy statutes or regulations. Continued governmental focus on data security and privacy may lead to additional legislative and regulatory action, which could increase the complexity of doing business. The increased emphasis on information security and the requirements to comply with applicable U.S. and foreign data security and privacy laws and regulations may increase our costs of doing business and negatively impact our results of operations.
These laws and regulations are increasing in complexity and number. If any person, including any of our employees, negligently disregards or intentionally breaches our established controls with respect to client or employee data, or otherwise mismanages or misappropriates that data, we could be subject to significant monetary damages, regulatory enforcement actions, fines, and/or criminal prosecution.
In addition, unauthorized disclosure of sensitive or confidential client or employee data, whether through systems failure, employee negligence, fraud, or misappropriation, could damage our reputation and cause us to lose clients and their related revenue in the future.
Our international expansion could result in additional risks.
We operate both domestically and internationally, including in Canada, Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. Although historically our international operations have been limited, we intend to continue to expand internationally. Such expansion may result in additional risks that are not present domestically and which could adversely affect our business or our results of operations, including:
compliance with additional U.S. regulations and those of other nations applicable to international operations;
cultural and language differences;
employment laws and rules and related social and cultural factors;

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losses related to start-up costs, lack of revenue, higher costs due to low utilization, and delays in purchase decisions by prospective clients;
currency fluctuations between the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies, which are harder to predict in the current adverse global economic climate;
restrictions on the repatriation of earnings;
potentially adverse tax consequences and limitations on our ability to utilize losses generated in our foreign operations;
different regulatory requirements and other barriers to conducting business;
different or less stable political and economic environments;
greater personal security risks for employees traveling to or located in unstable locations; and
civil disturbances or other catastrophic events.

Further, conducting business abroad subjects us to increased regulatory compliance and oversight. For example, in connection with our international operations, we are subject to laws prohibiting certain payments to governmental officials, such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. A failure to comply with applicable regulations could result in regulatory enforcement actions as well as substantial civil and criminal penalties assessed against us and our employees.
Our obligations under the Amended Credit Agreement are secured by a pledge of certain of the equity interests in our subsidiaries and a lien on substantially all of our assets and those of our subsidiary grantors. If we default on these obligations, our lenders may foreclose on our assets, including our pledged equity interest in our subsidiaries.
On March 31, 2015, we entered into a second amended and restated security agreement with Bank of America (the “Security Agreement”) and a second amended and restated pledge agreement (the “Pledge Agreement”) in connection with our entry into the Second Amended and Restated Credit Agreement, dated as of March 31, 2015 (as amended and restated, the “Amended Credit Agreement”). Pursuant to the Security Agreement and to secure our obligations under the Amended Credit Agreement, we granted our lenders a first-priority lien, subject to permitted liens, on substantially all of the personal property assets that we and the subsidiary grantors own. Pursuant to the Pledge Agreement, we granted our lenders 100% of the voting stock or other equity interests in our domestic subsidiaries and 65% of the voting stock or other equity interests in certain of our foreign subsidiaries. If we default on our obligations under the Amended Credit Agreement, our lenders could accelerate our indebtedness and may be able to exercise their liens on the equity interests subject to the Pledge Agreement and their liens on substantially all of our assets and the assets of our subsidiary grantors, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, operations, financial condition, and liquidity. In addition, the covenants contained in the Amended Credit Agreement impose restrictions on our ability to engage in certain activities, such as the incurrence of additional indebtedness, certain investments, certain acquisitions and dispositions, and the payment of dividends.
Our indebtedness could adversely affect our ability to raise additional capital to fund our operations and obligations, expose us to interest rate risk to the extent of our variable-rate debt, and adversely affect our financial results.
At December 31, 2016, we had outstanding indebtedness of $250 million principal amount of our 1.25% convertible senior notes due October 1, 2019, and $68 million on our revolving line of credit that becomes due and payable in full upon maturity on March 31, 2020. Our ability to make scheduled payments of the principal, to pay interest, to make payments upon conversion, or to refinance our indebtedness, depends on our future performance. Our business may not continue to generate cash flow from operations in the future sufficient to satisfy our obligations under our current indebtedness and any future indebtedness we may incur and to make necessary capital expenditures. If we are unable to generate such cash flow, we may be required to adopt one or more alternatives, such as reducing or delaying investments or capital expenditures, selling assets, refinancing, or obtaining additional equity capital on terms that may be onerous or highly dilutive. Our ability to refinance our current indebtedness or future indebtedness will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. We may not be able to engage in any of these activities or engage in these activities on desirable terms, which could result in a default on the current indebtedness or future indebtedness.
In addition, our indebtedness, combined with our other financial obligations and contractual commitments, could have other important consequences. For example, it could:
expose us to the risk of increased interest rates because some of our borrowings are at variable interest rates;
make us more vulnerable to adverse changes in general U.S. and worldwide economic, industry, and competitive conditions and adverse changes in government regulation;

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limit our ability to obtain additional financing and flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and our industry;
place us at a disadvantage compared to our competitors who have less debt or have better access to capital resources; and
require us to dedicate a larger portion of our cash from operations to service our indebtedness and thus reduce the level of cash for other purposes such as funding working capital, strategic acquisitions, capital expenditures, and other general corporate purposes.
Any of these factors could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. In addition, if we incur additional indebtedness, the risks related to our business and our ability to service or repay our indebtedness would increase.
The accounting method for convertible debt securities that may be settled in cash, such as our convertible notes, could have a material effect on our reported financial results.
Under GAAP, an entity must separately account for the debt component and the embedded conversion option of convertible debt instruments that may be settled entirely or partially in cash upon conversion, such as our convertible notes, in a manner that reflects a company’s economic interest cost. The effect of the accounting treatment for such instruments is that the value of such embedded conversion option would be treated as an original issue discount for purposes of accounting for the debt component of the notes and that original issue discount is amortized into interest expense over the term of the notes using an effective yield method. As a result, over the term of our convertible notes, we will initially be required to record a greater amount of non-cash interest expense. Accordingly, we will report lower net income in our financial results because of the recognition of both the current period’s amortization of the debt discount and our convertible notes’ coupon interest, which could adversely affect our reported or future financial results, the trading price of our common stock, and the trading price of our convertible notes.
Under certain circumstances, the shares of common stock underlying convertible debt instruments (such as our convertible notes) that may be settled entirely or partially in cash are reflected in earnings per share utilizing the treasury stock method, the effect of which is that such shares of common stock are not included in the calculation of diluted earnings per share except to the extent that the conversion value of the notes exceeds their principal amount at the end of the reporting period. Under the treasury stock method, for diluted earnings per share purposes, our convertible notes are accounted for as if the number of shares of common stock that would be necessary to settle such excess, if we elected to settle such excess in shares of common stock, are issued. The accounting standards in the future may not continue to permit the use of the treasury stock method. If we are unable to use the treasury stock method in accounting for the shares of common stock issuable upon conversion of our convertible notes, then our diluted earnings per share could be adversely affected.
In addition, if the conditional conversion feature of our convertible notes is triggered, even if holders do not elect to convert their convertible notes, we could be required under applicable accounting rules to reclassify all of the outstanding principal of our convertible notes as a current, rather than long-term, liability, which would result in a material reduction of our net working capital.
We may not have the ability to raise the funds necessary to pay the amount of cash due upon conversion of our convertible notes, if relevant, or the fundamental change repurchase price due when a holder submits its convertible notes for repurchase upon the occurrence of a fundamental change, and our debt may contain limitations on our ability to pay cash upon conversion or required repurchase of our convertible notes.
Upon the occurrence of a fundamental change as defined in the indenture governing our convertible notes, holders of our convertible notes may require us to repurchase, for cash, all or a portion of their convertible notes at a repurchase price equal to 100% of their principal amount, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any. In addition, upon conversion of our convertible notes, we will be required to make cash payments in respect of our convertible notes being converted, including if the conditional conversion feature of our convertible notes is triggered, unless we elect to deliver solely shares of our common stock to settle such conversion.
We may not have sufficient financial resources, or may be unable to arrange financing, to pay the fundamental change repurchase price if holders of our convertible notes submit their convertible notes for purchase by us upon the occurrence of a fundamental change or to pay the amount of cash (if any) due if holders of our convertible notes surrender their convertible notes for conversion. In addition, the occurrence of a fundamental change may cause an event of default under agreements governing our or our subsidiaries’ indebtedness. Agreements governing any of our future debt may restrict our ability to make each of the required cash payments even if we have sufficient funds to make them. Furthermore, our ability to purchase our convertible notes or to pay cash (if any) due upon the conversion of our convertible notes may be limited by law or regulatory authorities. In addition, if we fail to repurchase our convertible notes or to pay the amount of cash (if any) due upon conversion of our convertible notes, we will be in default under the indenture. A default under the indenture or the fundamental change itself could also lead to a default under agreements governing our other indebtedness, which in turn may result in the acceleration of such other indebtedness we may then have outstanding. If the repayment of the other indebtedness were to be accelerated, we may not have

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sufficient funds to repay that indebtedness and to repurchase our convertible notes or to pay the amount of cash (if any) due upon conversion.
The fundamental change provisions associated with our convertible notes may delay or prevent an otherwise beneficial takeover attempt of us.
The fundamental change purchase rights, which will allow holders of our convertible notes to require us to repurchase all or a portion of their convertible notes upon the occurrence of a fundamental change, and the provisions requiring an increase to the conversion rate for conversions in connection with certain other circumstances may delay or prevent a takeover of us that might otherwise be beneficial to investors.
The convertible note hedge transactions and the warrant transactions may affect the value of our convertible notes and our common stock.
In connection with the pricing of our convertible notes, we entered into privately negotiated convertible note hedge transactions with affiliates of Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated and J.P. Morgan Securities as hedge counterparties. The convertible note hedge transactions collectively cover, subject to customary anti-dilution adjustments, the number of shares of common stock that initially underlie our convertible notes. We also entered into separate privately negotiated warrant transactions with the hedge counterparties relating to the same number of shares of our common stock, subject to customary anti-dilution adjustments.
We expect that the hedge counterparties and/or their affiliates may modify their hedge positions with respect to the convertible note hedge transactions and the warrant transactions from time to time by purchasing and/or selling shares of our common stock and/or our convertible notes in privately negotiated transactions and/or open market transactions or by entering into and/or unwinding various over-the-counter derivative transactions with respect to our common stock. This activity could also cause or prevent an increase or decrease in the market value of our common stock. In addition, the hedge counterparties and/or their affiliates may choose to engage in, or to discontinue engaging in, any of these transactions with or without notice at any time, and their decisions will be in their sole discretion and not within our control.
The hedge counterparties are financial institutions which will be subject to the risk that one or both of the hedge counterparties might default under their respective convertible note hedge transactions. Upon a default by any hedge counterparty, we may suffer adverse tax consequences and more dilution than we currently anticipate with respect to our common stock. We can provide no assurances as to the financial stability or viability of the hedge counterparties.

Our intellectual property rights in our “Huron Consulting Group” name are important, and any inability to use that name could negatively impact our ability to build brand identity.
We believe that establishing, maintaining, and enhancing the “Huron Consulting Group” name and "Huron" brand is important to our business. We are, however, aware of a number of other companies that use names containing “Huron.” There could be potential trade name or service mark infringement claims brought against us by the users of these similar names and marks and those users may have trade name or service mark rights that are senior to ours. If another company were to successfully challenge our right to use our name, or if we were unable to prevent a competitor from using a name that is similar to our name, our ability to build brand identity could be negatively impacted.
Our business performance might not be sufficient for us to meet the full-year financial guidance that we provide publicly.
We provide full-year financial guidance to the public based upon our expectations regarding our financial performance. While we believe that our annual financial guidance provides investors and analysts with insight to our view of the Company’s future performance, such financial guidance is based on assumptions that may not always prove to be accurate and may vary from actual results. If we fail to meet the full-year financial guidance that we provide, or if we find it necessary to revise such guidance during the year, the market value of our common stock could be adversely affected.
Expanding our service offerings or number of offices may not be profitable.
We may choose to develop new service offerings, open new offices, or eliminate service offerings because of market opportunities or client demands. Developing new service offerings involves inherent risks, including:
our inability to estimate demand for the new service offerings;
competition from more established market participants;
a lack of market understanding; and

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unanticipated expenses to recruit and hire qualified consultants and to market our new service offerings.
In addition, expanding into new geographic areas and expanding current service offerings is challenging and may require integrating new employees into our culture as well as assessing the demand in the applicable market. If we cannot manage the risks associated with new service offerings or new locations effectively, we are unlikely to be successful in these efforts, which could harm our ability to sustain profitability and our business prospects.
The healthcare industry is an area of significant focus for our business, and factors that adversely affect the financial condition of the healthcare industry could consequently affect our business.
We derive a significant portion of our revenue from clients in the healthcare industry. As a result, our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected by conditions affecting the healthcare industry generally and hospitals and health systems particularly. The healthcare industry is highly regulated and is subject to changing political, legislative, regulatory, and other influences. Uncertainty in any of these areas could cause our clients to delay or postpone decisions to use our services. Existing and new federal and state laws and regulations affecting the healthcare industry could create unexpected liabilities for us, could cause us or our clients to incur additional costs, and could restrict our or our clients’ operations. Many healthcare laws are complex and their application to us, our clients, or the specific services and relationships we have with our clients are not always clear. In addition, federal and state legislatures have periodically introduced programs to reform or amend the U.S. healthcare system at both the federal and state level, such as the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010. Due to the significant implementation issues arising under these laws, it is unclear what long-term effects they will have on the healthcare industry and in turn on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Our failure to accurately anticipate the application of new laws and regulations, or our failure to comply with such laws and regulations, could create liability for us, result in adverse publicity and negatively affect our business.
There are many factors that could affect the purchasing practices, operations, and, ultimately, the operating funds of healthcare organizations, such as reimbursement policies for healthcare expenses, federal and state budgetary considerations, consolidation in the healthcare industry, and regulation, litigation, and general economic conditions. In particular, we could be required to make unplanned modifications of our products and services (which would require additional time and investment) or we could suffer reductions in demand for our products and services as a result of changes in regulations affecting the healthcare industry, such as changes in the way that healthcare organizations are paid for their services (e.g., based on patient outcomes instead of services provided). Furthermore, as a result of the 2016 election and the new presidential administration, there is an increased uncertainty surrounding the future of the Affordable Care Act and the regulation of the healthcare industry, and therefore healthcare organizations may wait to buy services such as ours until the regulatory environment is more certain.
In addition, state tax authorities have challenged the tax-exempt status of some hospitals and other healthcare facilities claiming such status on the basis that they are operating as charitable and/or religious organizations. If the tax-exempt status of any of our clients is revoked or compromised by new legislation or interpretation of existing legislation, that client’s financial health could be adversely affected, which could adversely impact demand for our services, our sales, revenue, financial condition, and results of operations.
Our ability to maintain and attract new business and talented personnel depends upon our reputation, the professional reputation of our revenue-generating employees, and the quality of our services.
As a professional services firm, our ability to secure new engagements and retain and attract talented personnel depends heavily upon our reputation and the individual reputations of our professionals. Any factor that diminishes our reputation or that of our employees, including not meeting client expectations or misconduct by our employees, could make it substantially more difficult for us to attract new engagements, clients, and employees. Similarly, because we obtain many of our new engagements from former or current clients or from referrals by those clients or by law firms that we have worked with in the past, any client that questions the quality of our work or that of our consultants could impair our ability to secure additional new engagements and clients.
A significant portion of our revenues is derived from a limited number of clients, and our engagement agreements, including those related to our largest clients, can be terminated by our clients with little or no notice and without penalty, which may cause our operating results to be unpredictable and may result in unexpected declines in our utilization and revenues.
As a consulting firm, we have derived, and expect to continue to derive, a significant portion of our revenues from a limited number of clients. Our 10 largest clients accounted for approximately 28.8%, 29.9%, and 31.5% of our revenues for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015, and 2014, respectively. No single client accounted for more than 10% of our revenues in 2016, 2015, or 2014. Our clients typically retain us on an engagement-by-engagement basis, rather than under fixed-term contracts. The volume of work performed for any particular client is likely to vary from year to year, and a major client in one fiscal period may not require or may decide not to use our services in any subsequent fiscal period. Moreover, a large portion of our new engagements comes from existing clients. Accordingly, the failure to obtain new large engagements or multiple engagements from existing or new clients could have a material adverse effect on the amount of revenues we generate.

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In addition, almost all of our engagement agreements can be terminated by our clients with little or no notice and without penalty. In client engagements that involve multiple engagements or stages, there is a risk that a client may choose not to retain us for additional stages of an engagement or that a client will cancel or delay additional planned engagements. For clients in bankruptcy, a bankruptcy court could elect not to retain our interim management consultants, terminate our retention, require us to reduce our fees for the duration of an engagement, or elect not to approve claims against fees earned by us prior to or after the bankruptcy filing.
Terminations of engagements, cancellations of portions of the project plan, delays in the work schedule, or reductions in fees could result from factors unrelated to our services. When engagements are terminated or reduced, we lose the associated future revenues, and we may not be able to recover associated costs or redeploy the affected employees in a timely manner to minimize the negative impact. In addition, our clients’ ability to terminate engagements with little or no notice and without penalty makes it difficult to predict our operating results in any particular fiscal period.
Our engagements could result in professional liability, which could be very costly and hurt our reputation.
Our engagements typically involve complex analyses and the exercise of professional judgment. As a result, we are subject to the risk of professional liability. From time to time, lawsuits with respect to our work are pending. Litigation alleging that we performed negligently or breached any other obligations could expose us to significant legal liabilities and, regardless of outcome, is often very costly, could distract our management, could damage our reputation, and could harm our financial condition and operating results. In addition, certain of our engagements, including interim management engagements and corporate restructurings, involve greater risks than other consulting engagements. We are not always able to include provisions in our engagement agreements that are designed to limit our exposure to legal claims relating to our services. While we attempt to identify and mitigate our exposure with respect to liability arising out of our consulting engagements, these efforts may be ineffective and an actual or alleged error or omission on our part or the part of our client or other third parties in one or more of our engagements could have an adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, we carry professional liability insurance to cover many of these types of claims, but the policy limits and the breadth of coverage may be inadequate to cover any particular claim or all claims plus the cost of legal defense. For example, we provide services on engagements in which the impact on a client may substantially exceed the limits of our errors and omissions insurance coverage. If we are found to have professional liability with respect to work performed on such an engagement, we may not have sufficient insurance to cover the entire liability.
The consulting services industry is highly competitive and we may not be able to compete effectively.
The consulting services industry in which we operate includes a large number of participants and is intensely competitive. We face competition from other business operations and financial consulting firms, general management consulting firms, the consulting practices of major accounting firms, regional and specialty consulting firms, and the internal professional resources of organizations. In addition, because there are relatively low barriers to entry, we expect to continue to face additional competition from new entrants into the business operations and financial consulting industries. Competition in several of the sectors in which we operate is particularly intense as many of our competitors are seeking to expand their market share in these sectors. Many of our competitors have a greater national and international presence, as well as have a significantly greater number of personnel, financial, technical, and marketing resources. In addition, these competitors may generate greater revenues and have greater name recognition than we do. Some of our competitors may also have lower overhead and other costs and, therefore, may be able to more effectively compete through lower cost service offerings. Our ability to compete also depends in part on the ability of our competitors to hire, retain, and motivate skilled professionals, the price at which others offer comparable services, the ability of our competitors to offer new and valuable products and services to clients, and our competitors’ responsiveness to their clients. If we are unable to compete successfully with our existing competitors or with any new competitors, our financial results will be adversely affected.
Conflicts of interest could preclude us from accepting engagements thereby causing decreased utilization and revenues.
We provide services in connection with bankruptcy and other proceedings that usually involve sensitive client information and frequently are adversarial. In connection with bankruptcy proceedings, we are required by law to be "disinterested" and may not be able to provide multiple services to a particular client. In addition, our engagement agreement with a client or other business reasons may preclude us from accepting engagements from time to time with the client's competitors or adversaries. Moreover, in many industries in which we provide services, there has been a continuing trend toward business consolidations and strategic alliances. These consolidations and alliances reduce the number of companies that may seek our services and increase the chances that we will be unable to accept new engagements as a result of conflicts of interest. If we are unable to accept new engagements for any reason, our consultants may become underutilized, which would adversely affect our revenues and results of operations in future periods.
ITEM 1B.
UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS.
None.

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ITEM 2.
PROPERTIES.
As of December 31, 2016, our principal executive offices in Chicago, Illinois, consisted of approximately 140,000 square feet of office space, under a lease expiring September 2024. We have one five-year renewal option that will allow us to continue to occupy this office space until September 2029. This facility accommodates our executive team and corporate departments, as well as professionals in each of our practices. Additionally, we occupy leased facilities for our other domestic and international offices, including those located in the following cities: Atlanta, Georgia; Boston, Massachusetts; Buffalo, New York; Dallas, Texas; Denver, Colorado; Houston, Texas; Madison, Wisconsin; New York City, New York; Pensacola, Florida; Portland, Oregon; San Diego, California; Washington, D.C.; Bangalore, India; and Toronto, Canada. We do not own any real property. We believe that our leased facilities are adequate to meet our current needs and that additional facilities are available for lease to meet future needs.
ITEM 3.
LEGAL PROCEEDINGS.
The information required by this Item is incorporated by reference from Note 17 "Commitments, Contingencies and Guarantees" included in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
From time to time, we are involved in legal proceedings and litigation arising in the ordinary course of business. As of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we are not a party to any litigation or legal proceeding that, in the current opinion of management, could have a material adverse effect on our financial position or results of operations. However, due to the risks and uncertainties inherent in legal proceedings, actual results could differ from current expected results.
ITEM 4.
MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES.
Not applicable.


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PART II
ITEM 5.
MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES.
Market Information
Our common stock is traded on The NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “HURN.” The following table sets forth, on a per share basis and for the periods indicated, the high and low sale prices for our common stock as reported by The NASDAQ Stock Market.
 
High
 
Low
2015
 
 
 
First Quarter
$
78.89

 
$
62.29

Second Quarter
$
71.92

 
$
58.13

Third Quarter
$
78.13

 
$
61.37

Fourth Quarter
$
65.03

 
$
43.35

2016
 
 
 
First Quarter
$
60.00

 
$
46.00

Second Quarter
$
62.34

 
$
54.14

Third Quarter
$
65.00

 
$
57.23

Fourth Quarter
$
60.64

 
$
41.20

Holders
As of February 15, 2017, there were 655 registered holders of record of Huron’s common stock. A number of the Company’s stockholders hold their shares in street name; therefore, the Company believes that there are substantially more beneficial owners of its common stock.
Dividends
We have not declared or paid dividends on our common stock since we became a public company. Our board of directors re-evaluates this policy periodically. Any determination to pay cash dividends will be at the discretion of the board of directors and will be dependent upon our results of operations, financial condition, capital requirements, terms of our financing arrangements, and such other factors as the board of directors deems relevant. In addition, the amount of dividends we may pay is subject to the restricted payment provisions of our senior secured credit facility. See the Liquidity and Capital Resources section under Part II—Item 7. "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" for further information on the restricted payment provisions of our senior secured credit facility.
Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans
The information required by this item appears under Item 12. "Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholders Matters” included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
Our Stock Ownership Participation Program, 2012 Omnibus Incentive Plan, and 2004 Omnibus Stock Plan, which was replaced by the 2012 Omnibus Incentive Plan, permit the netting of common stock upon vesting of restricted stock awards to satisfy individual tax withholding requirements. During the quarter ended December 31, 2016, we reacquired 2,223 shares of common stock with a weighted average fair market value of $51.99 as a result of such tax withholdings.
In October 2014, our board of directors authorized a share repurchase program pursuant to which we may, from time to time, repurchase our common stock (the "Share Repurchase Program"). The Share Repurchase Program allows us to repurchase up to $125 million of our common stock and expires on October 31, 2017. The amount and timing of the repurchases will be determined by management and will depend on a variety of factors, including the trading price of our common stock, general market and business conditions, and applicable legal requirements.

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The following table provides information with respect to purchases we made of our common stock during the fourth quarter of 2016.
Period
 
Total Number 
of Shares Purchased (1)
 
Average Price
Paid Per Share
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs
 
Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased under the Plans or Programs (2)
October 1, 2016 – October 31, 2016
 
66

 
$
59.76

 

 
$
35,143,546

November 1, 2016 – November 30, 2016
 
7

 
$
56.05

 

 
$
35,143,546

December 1, 2016 – December 31, 2016
 
2,150

 
$
51.73

 

 
$
35,143,546

Total
 
2,223

 
$
51.99

 

 
 
 
(1)
The number of shares purchased for each period represents shares to satisfy employee tax withholding requirements. These shares do not reduce the repurchase authority under the Share Repurchase Program.
(2)
As of the end of the period.


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ITEM 6.
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA.
We have derived the following selected consolidated financial data as of and for the years ended December 31, 2012 through 2016 from our consolidated financial statements. The following data reflects the business acquisitions that we have completed through December 31, 2016. The results of operations for acquired businesses have been included in our results of operations since the date of their acquisitions. See Note 4 "Acquisitions" within the notes to our consolidated financial statements for additional information regarding our acquisitions. The information set forth below is not necessarily indicative of the results of future operations and should be read in conjunction with Item 7. "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. 
Consolidated Statements of Earnings
(in thousands, except per share data):
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
Revenues and reimbursable expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
 
$
726,272

 
$
699,010

 
$
627,686

 
$
538,128

 
$
441,043

Reimbursable expenses
 
71,712

 
70,013

 
73,847

 
64,623

 
52,354

Total revenues and reimbursable expenses
 
797,984

 
769,023

 
701,533

 
602,751

 
493,397

Direct costs and reimbursable expenses (exclusive of depreciation and amortization shown in operating expenses) (1):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Direct costs
 
437,556

 
401,915

 
384,277

 
323,398

 
261,092

Amortization of intangible assets and software development costs
 
15,140

 
16,788

 
4,590

 
2,660

 
3,635

Reimbursable expenses
 
71,749

 
69,932

 
73,855

 
64,665

 
52,360

Total direct costs and reimbursable expenses
 
524,445

 
488,635

 
462,722

 
390,723

 
317,087

Operating expenses and other operating gains:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Selling, general and administrative expenses
 
160,204

 
157,902

 
132,799

 
116,976

 
107,616

Restructuring charges
 
9,592

 
3,329

 
2,811

 
305

 
3,047

Restatement related expenses
 

 

 

 

 
1,785

Litigation and other (gains) losses, net
 
(1,990
)
 
(9,476
)
 
(590
)
 
(5,875
)
 
1,150

Depreciation and amortization (1)
 
31,499

 
25,135

 
15,451

 
10,723

 
10,650

Goodwill impairment charge
 

 

 

 

 
13,083

Total operating expenses and other operating gains
 
199,305

 
176,890

 
150,471

 
122,129

 
137,331

Operating income
 
74,234

 
103,498

 
88,340

 
89,899

 
38,979

Other income (expense), net:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest expense, net of interest income
 
(16,274
)
 
(18,136
)
 
(8,679
)
 
(6,475
)
 
(8,142
)
Other income (expense), net
 
1,197

 
(1,797
)
 
400

 
353

 
425

Total other expense, net
 
(15,077
)
 
(19,933
)
 
(8,279
)
 
(6,122
)
 
(7,717
)
Income from continuing operations before income tax expense
 
59,157

 
83,565

 
80,061

 
83,777

 
31,262

Income tax expense
 
19,677

 
21,670

 
33,059

 
32,200

 
14,211

Net income from continuing operations
 
39,480

 
61,895

 
47,002

 
51,577

 
17,051

Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of tax
 
(1,863
)
 
(2,843
)
 
32,049

 
14,856

 
19,377

Net income
 
$
37,617

 
$
59,052

 
$
79,051

 
$
66,433

 
$
36,428







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Consolidated Statements of Earnings
(in thousands, except per share data):
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
Net earnings per basic share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income from continuing operations
 
$
1.87

 
$
2.80

 
$
2.10

 
$
2.31

 
$
0.78

Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of tax
 
(0.09
)
 
(0.13
)
 
1.42

 
0.67

 
0.88

Net income
 
$
1.78

 
$
2.67

 
$
3.52

 
$
2.98

 
$
1.66

Net earnings per diluted share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income from continuing operations
 
$
1.84

 
$
2.74

 
$
2.05

 
$
2.26

 
$
0.77

Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of tax
 
(0.08
)
 
(0.13
)
 
$
1.40

 
$
0.66

 
$
0.86

Net income
 
$
1.76

 
$
2.61

 
$
3.45

 
$
2.92

 
$
1.63

Weighted average shares used in calculating net earnings per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
 
21,084

 
22,136

 
22,431

 
22,322

 
21,905

Diluted
 
21,424

 
22,600

 
22,925

 
22,777

 
22,285

Consolidated Balance Sheet Data
(in thousands):
 
As of December 31,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
17,027

 
$
58,437

 
$
256,872

 
$
58,131

 
$
25,162

Working capital (2)
 
$
44,314

 
$
96,966

 
$
307,978

 
$
98,394

 
$
82,889

Total assets (2)
 
$
1,153,215

 
$
1,159,543

 
$
1,148,475

 
$
883,223

 
$
785,226

Long-term debt (2)(3)
 
$
292,065

 
$
307,376

 
$
320,413

 
$
141,421

 
$
189,826

Total stockholders’ equity (4)
 
$
648,033

 
$
652,325

 
$
600,634

 
$
530,264

 
$
445,321

(1)
Intangible asset amortization relating to customer contracts, certain client relationships, and software and amortization of software development costs are presented as a component of total direct costs. Depreciation and intangible assets amortization not classified as direct costs are presented as a component of operating expenses.
(2)
In the first quarter of 2016, we adopted ASU 2015-03, Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs, which simplifies the presentation of debt issuance costs by requiring that debt issuance costs related to a recognized debt liability be presented on the balance sheet as a direct deduction from the carrying amount of that debt liability, consistent with debt discounts. As required by ASU 2015-03, we applied its provisions retrospectively for all fiscal years presented. See Note 2 "Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" within the notes to our consolidated financial statements for additional information.
(3)
Consists of bank borrowings, convertible senior notes, and capital lease obligations, net of current portions, debt discounts, and certain debt issuance costs.
(4)
We have not declared or paid dividends on our common stock in the periods presented above. See Item 5. "Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities—Dividends."
ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS.
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations ("MD&A") should be read in conjunction with the information under Part II—Item 6. "Selected Financial Data," and our Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes appearing under Part II—Item 8. "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data." The following MD&A contains forward-looking statements and involves numerous risks and uncertainties, including, without limitation, those described under Part I—Item 1A. "Risk Factors" and "Forward-Looking Statements" of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Actual results may differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements.
OVERVIEW
We are a global professional services firm committed to achieving sustainable results in partnership with clients. We bring a depth of expertise in strategy, operations, advisory services, technology and analytics to drive lasting and measurable results in the healthcare, higher education, life sciences and commercial sectors. Through focus, passion and collaboration, we provide guidance and services to support organizations as they contend with the change transforming their industries and businesses.
We provide our services and manage our business under four operating segments: Healthcare, Education and Life Sciences, Business Advisory, and All Other. See Part I—Item 1. "Business—Overview—Our Services” and Note 18 “Segment Information” within the notes to our consolidated financial statements for a discussion of our four segments.

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How We Generate Revenues
A large portion of our revenues is generated by our full-time consultants who provide consulting services to our clients and are billable to our clients based on the number of hours worked. A smaller portion of our revenues is generated by our other professionals, also referred to as full-time equivalents, some of whom work variable schedules as needed by our clients. Full-time equivalent professionals consist of our cultural transformation consultants from our Studer Group solution, which include coaches and their support staff, specialized finance and operational consultants, and our employees who provide software support and maintenance services to our clients. We translate the hours that these other professionals work on client engagements into a full-time equivalent measure that we use to manage our business. We refer to our full-time consultants and other professionals collectively as revenue-generating professionals.
Revenues generated by our full-time consultants are primarily driven by the number of consultants we employ and their utilization rates, as well as the billing rates we charge our clients. Revenues generated by our other professionals, or full-time equivalents, are largely dependent on the number of consultants we employ, their hours worked, and billing rates charged. Revenues generated by our coaches are largely dependent on the number of coaches we employ and the total value, scope, and terms of the consulting contracts under which they provide services, which are primarily fixed-fee contracts.
We generate our revenues from providing professional services under four types of billing arrangements: fixed-fee (including software license revenue), time-and-expense, performance-based, and software support and maintenance and subscriptions.
In fixed-fee billing arrangements, we agree to a pre-established fee in exchange for a predetermined set of professional services. We set the fees based on our estimates of the costs and timing for completing the engagements. It is the client’s expectation in these engagements that the pre-established fee will not be exceeded except in mutually agreed upon circumstances. We generally recognize revenues under fixed-fee billing arrangements using a proportionate performance approach, which is based on work completed to-date versus our estimates of the total services to be provided under the engagement. Contracts within our Studer Group solution are fixed-fee partner contracts with multiple deliverables, which primarily consist of coaching services, as well as seminars, materials and software products (“Partner Contracts”). Revenues for coaching services and software products are generally recognized on a straight-line basis over the length of the contract. All other revenues under Partner Contracts are recognized at the time the service is provided.
Fixed-fee arrangements also include software licenses for our revenue cycle management software and research administration and compliance software. Licenses for our revenue cycle management software are sold only as a component of our consulting projects, and the services we provide are essential to the functionality of the software. Therefore, revenues from these software licenses are recognized over the term of the related consulting services contract. License revenue from our research administration and compliance software is generally recognized in the month in which the software is delivered.
Fixed-fee engagements represented 47.4%, 58.0%, and 50.3% of our revenues for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015, and 2014, respectively.
Time-and-expense billing arrangements require the client to pay based on the number of hours worked by our revenue-generating professionals at agreed upon rates. Time-and-expense arrangements also include certain speaking engagements, conferences, and publications purchased by our clients outside of Partner Contracts within our Studer Group solution. We recognize revenues under time-and-expense billing arrangements as the related services or publications are provided. Time-and-expense engagements represented 38.7%, 28.7%, and 28.3% of our revenues in 2016, 2015, and 2014, respectively.
In performance-based fee billing arrangements, fees are tied to the attainment of contractually defined objectives. We enter into performance-based engagements in essentially two forms. First, we generally earn fees that are directly related to the savings formally acknowledged by the client as a result of adopting our recommendations for improving operational and cost effectiveness in the areas we review. Second, we have performance-based engagements in which we earn a success fee when and if certain predefined outcomes occur. Often, performance-based fees supplement our time-and-expense or fixed-fee engagements. We do not recognize revenues under performance-based billing arrangements until all related performance criteria are met. Performance-based fee revenues represented 8.9%, 8.7%, and 17.2% of our revenues in 2016, 2015, and 2014, respectively. The level of performance-based fees earned may vary based on our clients’ risk sharing preferences and the mix of services we provide. Performance-based fee arrangements may cause significant variations in revenues, operating results, and average billing rates due to our level of execution and the timing of achievement of the performance-based criteria.
Clients that have purchased one of our software licenses can pay an annual fee for software support and maintenance. We also generate subscription revenue from our cloud-based analytic tools and solutions. Software support and maintenance and subscription-based revenues are recognized ratably over the support or subscription period, which ranges from one to three years. These fees are billed in advance and included in deferred revenues until recognized. Software support and maintenance and subscription-based revenues represented 5.0%, 4.6%, and 4.2% of our revenues in 2016, 2015, and 2014, respectively.

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Our quarterly results are impacted principally by our full-time consultants’ utilization rate, the billing rates we charge our clients, the number of our revenue-generating professionals who are available to work, and the amount of performance-based fees recognized, which often vary significantly between quarters. Our utilization rate can be negatively affected by increased hiring because there is generally a transition period for new professionals that results in a temporary drop in our utilization rate. Our utilization rate can also be affected by seasonal variations in the demand for our services from our clients. For example, during the third and fourth quarters of the year, vacations taken by our clients can result in the deferral of activity on existing and new engagements, which would negatively affect our utilization rate. The number of business work days is also affected by the number of vacation days taken by our consultants and holidays in each quarter. We typically have fewer business work days available in the fourth quarter of the year, which can impact revenues during that period.
Time-and-expense engagements do not provide us with a high degree of predictability as to performance in future periods. Unexpected changes in the demand for our services can result in significant variations in utilization and revenues and present a challenge to optimal hiring and staffing. Moreover, our clients typically retain us on an engagement-by-engagement basis, rather than under long-term recurring contracts. The volume of work performed for any particular client can vary widely from period to period.
Reimbursable expenses
Reimbursable expenses that are billed to clients, primarily relating to travel and out-of-pocket expenses incurred in connection with engagements, are included in total revenues and reimbursable expenses, and typically an equivalent amount of these expenses are included in total direct costs and reimbursable expenses. Reimbursable expenses also include subcontractors who are billed to our clients at cost. When billings do not specifically identify reimbursable expenses, we allocate the portion of the billings equivalent to these expenses to reimbursable expenses. We manage our business on the basis of revenues before reimbursable expenses, which we believe is the most accurate reflection of our services because it eliminates the effect of reimbursable expenses that we bill to our clients at cost.
Total direct costs
Our most significant expenses are costs classified as total direct costs. These total direct costs primarily include salaries, performance bonuses, payroll taxes, and benefits for revenue-generating professionals, as well as technology costs, product and event costs, and fees paid to independent contractors that we retain to supplement our revenue-generating professionals, typically on an as-needed basis for specific client engagements. Direct costs also include share-based compensation, which represents the cost of restricted stock and performance-based share awards granted to our revenue-generating professionals. Compensation expense for restricted stock awards and performance-based share awards is recognized ratably using either the straight-line attribution method or the graded vesting attribution method, as appropriate, over the requisite service period, which is generally three to four years. Total direct costs also include amortization of intangible assets, primarily relating to customer contracts, certain customer relationships, and technology and software acquired in business combinations, and internally developed software costs.
Operating expenses and other operating gains
Our operating expenses include selling, general and administrative expenses, which consist primarily of salaries, performance bonuses, payroll taxes, benefits, and share-based compensation for our support personnel. Also included in operating expenses are sales and marketing related expenses, rent and other office related expenses, professional fees, recruiting and training expenses, restructuring charges, and litigation and other gains and losses. Other operating expenses include depreciation and certain amortization expenses not included in total direct costs.
Segment results
Segment operating income consists of the revenues generated by a segment, less the direct costs of revenue and selling, general and administrative costs that are incurred directly by the segment. Unallocated costs include corporate costs related to administrative functions that are performed in a centralized manner that are not attributable to a particular segment. These administrative function costs include corporate office support costs, certain office facility costs, costs relating to accounting and finance, human resources, legal, marketing, information technology, and Company-wide business development functions, as well as costs related to overall corporate management.


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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, selected segment and consolidated operating results and other operating data. The results of operations for acquired businesses have been included in our results of operations since the date of their respective acquisition.
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Segment and Consolidated Operating Results (in thousands):
 
 
 
 
 
Healthcare:
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
$
424,912

 
$
446,887

 
$
415,803

Operating income
$
147,903

 
$
169,560

 
$
159,015

Segment operating income as a percentage of segment revenues
34.8
%
 
37.9
%
 
38.2
%
Education and Life Sciences:
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
$
178,978

 
$
167,933

 
$
145,962

Operating income
$
43,233

 
$
44,216

 
$
36,131

Segment operating income as a percentage of segment revenues
24.2
%
 
26.3
%
 
24.8
%
Business Advisory:
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
$
122,382

 
$
82,968

 
$
62,840

Operating income
$
24,459

 
$
19,263

 
$
14,035

Segment operating income as a percentage of segment revenues
20.0
%
 
23.2
%
 
22.3
%
All Other:
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
$

 
$
1,222

 
$
3,081

Operating loss
$

 
$
(1,718
)
 
$
(2,466
)
Segment operating loss as a percentage of segment revenues
N/M

 
N/M

 
N/M

Total Company:
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
$
726,272

 
$
699,010

 
$
627,686

Reimbursable expenses
71,712

 
70,013

 
73,847

Total revenues and reimbursable expenses
$
797,984

 
$
769,023

 
$
701,533

Statements of Earnings reconciliation:
 
 
 
 
 
Segment operating income
$
215,595

 
$
231,321

 
$
206,715

Items not allocated at the segment level:
 
 
 
 
 
Other operating expenses
111,852

 
112,164

 
103,514

Litigation and other gains, net
(1,990
)
 
(9,476
)
 
(590
)
Depreciation and amortization expense
31,499

 
25,135

 
15,451

Total operating income
$
74,234

 
$
103,498

 
$
88,340

Other Operating Data (excluding All Other):
 
 
 
 
 
Number of full-time billable consultants (at period end) (1):
 
 
 
 
 
Healthcare
888

 
1,037

 
1,099

Education and Life Sciences
544

 
478

 
418

Business Advisory
471

 
306

 
205

Total
1,903

 
1,821

 
1,722

Average number of full-time billable consultants (for the period) (1):
 
 
 
 
 
Healthcare
998

 
1,085

 
1,070

Education and Life Sciences
514

 
442

 
417

Business Advisory
409

 
243

 
180

Total
1,921

 
1,770

 
1,667

Full-time billable consultant utilization rate (2):
 
 
 
 
 
Healthcare
77.1
%
 
77.9
%
 
78.3
%
Education and Life Sciences
69.8
%
 
75.5
%
 
71.3
%
Business Advisory
74.5
%
 
75.0
%
 
68.0
%
Total
74.6
%
 
76.9
%
 
75.4
%
Full-time billable consultant average billing rate per hour (3):
 
 
 
 
 
Healthcare
$
210

 
$
217

 
$
248

Education and Life Sciences
$
229

 
$
231

 
$
219

Business Advisory (4)
$
194

 
$
228

 
$
255

Total
$
212

 
$
222

 
$
242


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Year Ended December 31,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Other Operating Data (continued):
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue per full-time billable consultant (in thousands):
 
 
 
 
 
Healthcare
$
300

 
$
313

 
$
363

Education and Life Sciences
$
303

 
$
325

 
$
292

Business Advisory
$
280

 
$
328

 
$
330

Total
$
297

 
$
318

 
$
341

Average number of full-time equivalents (for the period) (5):
 
 
 
 
 
Healthcare
203

 
179

 
60

Education and Life Sciences
41

 
43

 
43

Business Advisory
17

 
8

 
9

Total
261

 
230

 
112

Revenue per full-time equivalent (in thousands):
 
 
 
 
 
Healthcare
$
614

 
$
604

 
$
461

Education and Life Sciences
$
564

 
$
574

 
$
558

Business Advisory
$
456

 
$
408

 
$
390

Total
$
596

 
$
591

 
$
493

(1)
Consists of our full-time professionals who provide consulting services and generate revenues based on the number of hours worked.
(2)
Utilization rate for our full-time billable consultants is calculated by dividing the number of hours all of our full-time billable consultants worked on client assignments during a period by the total available working hours for all of these consultants during the same period, assuming a forty-hour work week, less paid holidays and vacation days.
(3)
Average billing rate per hour for our full-time billable consultants is calculated by dividing revenues for a period by the number of hours worked on client assignments during the same period.
(4)
The Business Advisory segment includes our India Enterprise Solutions and Analytics practice, formerly known as Rittman Mead Consulting Private Limited ("Rittman Mead India"), a business that we acquired in July 2015. The average billing rate per hour for this practice is lower than our overall average billing rate per hour for the Business Advisory segment. Absent the impact of our India Enterprise Solutions and Analytics practice, the average billing rate per hour for Business Advisory for the year ended December 31, 2016 and 2015 would have been $225 and $256, respectively.
(5)
Consists of cultural transformation consultants within our Studer Group solution, which include coaches and their support staff, consultants who work variable schedules as needed by our clients, and full-time employees who provide software support and maintenance services to our clients.
N/M - Not meaningful
Non-GAAP Measures
We also assess our results of operations using certain non-GAAP financial measures. These non-GAAP financial measures differ from GAAP because the non-GAAP financial measures we calculate to measure adjusted earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (“EBITDA”), adjusted net income from continuing operations, and adjusted diluted earnings per share from continuing operations exclude a number of items required by GAAP, each discussed below. These non-GAAP financial measures should be considered in addition to, and not as a substitute for or superior to, any measure of performance, cash flows, or liquidity prepared in accordance with GAAP. Our non-GAAP financial measures may be defined differently from time to time and may be defined differently than similar terms used by other companies, and accordingly, care should be exercised in understanding how we define our non-GAAP financial measures.
Our management uses the non-GAAP financial measures to gain an understanding of our comparative operating performance, for example when comparing such results with previous periods or forecasts. These non-GAAP financial measures are used by management in their financial and operating decision making because management believes they reflect our ongoing business in a manner that allows for meaningful period-to-period comparisons. Management also uses these non-GAAP financial measures when publicly providing our business outlook, for internal management purposes, and as a basis for evaluating potential acquisitions and dispositions. We believe that these non-GAAP financial measures provide useful information to investors and others in understanding and evaluating Huron’s current operating

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performance and future prospects in the same manner as management does and in comparing in a consistent manner Huron’s current financial results with Huron’s past financial results.
The reconciliations of these financial measures from GAAP to non-GAAP are as follows (in thousands, except per share amounts):
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Revenues
$
726,272

 
$
699,010

 
$
627,686

Net income from continuing operations
$
39,480

 
$
61,895

 
$
47,002

Add back:
 
 
 
 
 
Income tax expense
19,677

 
21,670

 
33,059

Interest and other expenses
15,077

 
19,933

 
8,279

Depreciation and amortization
46,639

 
41,923

 
20,041

Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA)
120,873

 
145,421

 
108,381

Add back:
 
 
 
 
 
Restructuring charges
9,592

 
3,329

 
2,811

Litigation and other gains, net
(1,990
)
 
(9,476
)
 
(590
)
Adjusted EBITDA
$
128,475

 
$
139,274

 
$
110,602

Adjusted EBITDA as a percentage of revenues
17.7
%
 
19.9
%
 
17.6
%
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Net income from continuing operations
$
39,480

 
$
61,895

 
$
47,002

Weighted average shares—diluted
21,424

 
22,600

 
22,925

Diluted earnings per share from continuing operations
$
1.84

 
$
2.74

 
$
2.05

Add back:
 
 
 
 
 
Amortization of intangible assets
33,108

 
28,696

 
8,896

Restructuring charges
9,592

 
3,329

 
2,811

Litigation and other gains, net
(1,990
)
 
(9,476
)
 
(590
)
Non-cash interest on convertible notes
7,488

 
7,141

 
2,139

Tax effect
(18,942
)
 
(11,698
)
 
(5,302
)
Net tax (benefit) expense related to “check-the-box” elections

 
(12,336
)
 
1,161

Total adjustments, net of tax
29,256

 
5,656

 
9,115

Adjusted net income from continuing operations
$
68,736

 
$
67,551

 
$
56,117

Adjusted diluted earnings per share from continuing operations
$
3.21

 
$
2.99

 
$
2.45

These non-GAAP financial measures include adjustments for the following items:
Restructuring charges: We have incurred charges due to the restructuring of various parts of our business. These restructuring charges have primarily consisted of costs associated with office space consolidations, including the accelerated depreciation of certain leasehold improvements, and severance charges. We have excluded the effect of the restructuring charges from our non-GAAP measures because the amount of each restructuring charge is significantly affected by the timing and size of the restructured business or component of a business.
Litigation and other gains, net: We have excluded the effects of the net remeasurement gains and losses related to contingent acquisition liabilities recorded in 2016, 2015, and 2014 and the litigation gain recorded in 2015 to permit comparability with periods that were not impacted by these items.
Amortization of intangible assets: We have excluded the effect of amortization of intangible assets from the calculation of adjusted net income from continuing operations presented above. Amortization of intangibles is inconsistent in its amount and frequency and is significantly affected by the timing and size of our acquisitions.
Non-cash interest on convertible notes: We incur non-cash interest expense relating to the implied value of the equity conversion component of our $250 million principal amount of 1.25% convertible senior notes due 2019 (the “Convertible Notes”) that we issued in September 2014. The value of the equity conversion component is treated as a debt discount and amortized to interest expense over the life of the Convertible Notes using the effective interest rate method. We exclude this non-cash interest expense that does not represent cash interest payments

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from the calculation of adjusted net income from continuing operations as management believes that this non-cash expense is not indicative of the ongoing performance of our business.
Tax effect: The non-GAAP income tax adjustment reflects the incremental tax rate applicable to the non-GAAP adjustments.
Net tax (benefit) expense related to “check-the-box” elections: We have excluded the effects of our “check-the-box” elections to treat two of our wholly-owned foreign subsidiaries in the fourth quarter of 2015 and one of our wholly-owned foreign subsidiaries in the first quarter of 2014 as disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes because their exclusion permits comparability with periods that were not impacted by these items.
Income tax expense, Interest and other expenses, Depreciation and amortization: We have excluded the effects of interest and other expenses, income tax expense, and depreciation and amortization in the calculation of EBITDA as these are customary exclusions as defined by the calculation of EBITDA to arrive at meaningful earnings from core operations excluding the effect of such items.
Year Ended December 31, 2016 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2015
Revenues
Revenues increased $27.3 million, or 3.9%, to $726.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2016, from $699.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2015. Revenues for 2016 included $34.5 million from our acquisitions of MyRounding, ADI Strategies, and HSM Consulting, all of which were completed during 2016, and $19.3 million of incremental revenues due to the full year impact in 2016 of our acquisitions of Studer Group, which was completed mid-first quarter 2015, Rittman Mead India, which was completed at the beginning of the third quarter of 2015, and Cloud62, Inc. ("Cloud62"), which was completed at the beginning of the fourth quarter of 2015.
Of the overall $27.3 million increase in revenues, $20.6 million was attributable to our full-time equivalents and $6.7 million was attributable to our full-time billable consultants.
The increase in full-time equivalent revenues was primarily attributable to the full year impact of our acquisition of Studer Group, as well as overall growth of the Studer Group practice, and increased use of contractors and subscription revenue in the Business Advisory segment, largely due to our acquisition of ADI Strategies, and reflected an increase in the average number of full-time equivalents.
The increase in full-time billable consultant revenues was driven by an increase in the average number of full-time billable consultants, partially offset by decreases in the average billing rate and consultant utilization rate. As discussed below in Segment Results, this increase in revenue reflected our acquisitions and strengthened demand for our services in the Education and Life Sciences and Business Advisory segments. These increases to revenue were partially offset by lower revenues from full-time billable consultants in our Healthcare segment, which was largely driven by decreases in revenue in our revenue cycle and cost and clinical solutions.
Total Direct Costs
Our total direct costs, including amortization of intangible assets and software development costs, increased $34.0 million, or 8.1%, to $452.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 from $418.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2015. The overall $34.0 million increase in direct costs primarily related to a $36.7 million increase in salaries and related expenses for our revenue-generating professionals, which was primarily driven by increased headcount from acquisitions and our ongoing cloud-based ERP investment, and a $1.6 million increase in technology expenses, partially offset by a $2.6 million decrease in share-based compensation expense for our revenue-generating professionals and a $1.7 million decrease in intangible asset amortization expense. As a percentage of revenues, our total direct costs increased to 62.3% during 2016 compared to 59.9% during 2015, primarily due to the items described above.
Total direct costs for the year ended December 31, 2016 included $15.1 million of amortization expense for intangible assets, primarily representing customer contracts and software acquired in business combinations, and internal software development costs, compared to $16.8 million of amortization expense in 2015. See Note 4 "Acquisitions" and Note 5 "Goodwill and Intangible Assets" within the notes to our consolidated financial statements for additional information about our intangible assets.
Operating Expenses and Other Operating Gains
Selling, general and administrative expenses increased $2.3 million, or 1.5%, to $160.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2016, compared to $157.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2015. This overall increase was primarily related to a $4.8 million increase in salaries and related expenses for our support personnel and a $1.3 million increase in share-based compensation expense for our support personnel, partially offset by a $1.4 million decrease in facilities and other office related expenses, a $1.1 million decrease in recruiting expenses, a $0.5 million decrease in severance expense, and a $0.8 million decrease in performance bonus expense for our support personnel. As a percentage of revenues, selling, general and administrative expenses decreased to 22.1% during 2016 compared to 22.6% during 2015, primarily due to the items described above.

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Restructuring charges for the year ended December 31, 2016 totaled $9.6 million, compared to $3.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2015. The charges in 2016 primarily consisted of $7.3 million related to workforce reductions to better align our resources with market demand, $1.5 million related to updated lease accrual assumptions, primarily for our Washington, D.C. space vacated in the fourth quarter of 2014, and $0.3 million related to the wind down of our foreign operations based in the Middle East. Of the overall $9.6 million charge for 2016, $5.8 million related to our Healthcare segment, $3.2 million related to our corporate operations primarily to adjust our infrastructure to align with our Legal divestiture, and $0.6 million related to our Business Advisory segment. The charges in 2015 consisted of $2.8 million related to workforce reductions to better align our resources with market demand and $0.5 million related to office exit costs primarily related to updated assumptions for the lease accrual of the Washington, D.C. space vacated in the fourth quarter of 2014. Of the overall $3.3 million pretax charge for 2015, $1.2 million related to our Huron Healthcare segment, $1.1 million related to our All Other segment as we wound down our public sector consulting practice and our foreign consulting operations based in the Middle East, and $1.0 million related to our corporate operations. See Note 10 “Restructuring Charges” within the notes to our consolidated financial statements for further discussion of our restructuring expenses.
Litigation and other gains, net totaled $2.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2016, compared to $9.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2015. The total gain of $2.0 million in 2016 represented net remeasurement gains related to changes in the fair value of contingent consideration liabilities incurred in connection with business acquisitions. The total gain of $9.5 million in 2015 consisted of a $9.2 million net gain from litigation settlements and a $0.3 million remeasurement gain related to a decrease in the fair value of a contingent consideration liability incurred in connection with a business acquisition. During the fourth quarter of 2015, we settled two lawsuits brought by Huron, resulting in a gain of $10.0 million being recorded. We collected the $10.0 million in January 2016. During the second quarter of 2015, we recorded a net litigation accrual of $0.8 million related to the settlement of a legal claim.
Depreciation and amortization expense increased $6.4 million, or 25.3%, to $31.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2016, from $25.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2015. The increase was primarily attributable to amortization expense for intangible assets acquired in the Studer Group acquisition, as well as amortization expense for intangible assets acquired in the Cloud62, ADI Strategies, and HSM Consulting acquisitions. Intangible asset amortization included within operating expenses primarily relates to customer relationships, non-competition agreements, and trade names acquired in connection with our business acquisitions.
Operating Income
Operating income decreased $29.3 million, or 28.3%, to $74.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2016, from $103.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2015. Operating margin, which is defined as operating income expressed as a percentage of revenues, decreased to 10.2% in 2016 compared to 14.8% in 2015. The decrease in operating margin was primarily attributable to the increase in salaries and related expenses for our revenue-generating professionals as a percentage of revenues, the decrease in litigation and other gains, net, and the increase in restructuring charges as a percentage of revenues, partially offset by the decrease in share-based compensation expense for our revenue-generating professionals in 2016 compared to 2015.
Other Expense, Net
Total other expense, net decreased $4.9 million to $15.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2016, from $19.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2015. The decrease was primarily attributable to a $1.9 million decrease in interest expense, net, a $1.7 million decrease in foreign currency transaction losses, and a $1.2 million gain during 2016 from an increase in the market value of our investments that are used to fund our deferred compensation liability compared to a $0.2 million loss during 2015. The decrease in interest expense was due to lower levels of borrowings under our credit facility during 2016 compared to 2015.
Income Tax Expense
For the year ended December 31, 2016, our effective tax rate was 33.3% as we recognized income tax expense from continuing operations of $19.7 million on income from continuing operations of $59.2 million. For the year ended December 31, 2015, our effective tax rate was 25.9% as we recognized income tax expense from continuing operations of $21.7 million on income from continuing operations of $83.6 million. Our effective tax rate for 2016 was lower than the statutory rate, inclusive of state income taxes, primarily due to valuation allowance reductions, certain credits and deductions, non-taxable income, and a discrete tax benefit related to share-based compensation, partially offset by non-deductible business expenses. In 2016, we released certain valuation allowances primarily related to foreign tax credits, as we expect to have sufficient foreign source income to utilize these credits before their expiration. Our effective tax rate for 2015 was lower than the statutory rate, inclusive of state income taxes, primarily due to the impact of a tax election made in the fourth quarter of 2015 to classify two of our wholly-owned foreign subsidiaries as disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes (commonly referred to as a “check-the-box” election). As a result of this election, we realized an income tax benefit of $13.0 million, of which $0.7 million is unrecognized, resulting in a net recognized tax benefit of $12.3 million. See Note 16 "Income Taxes" within the notes to our consolidated financial statements for additional information related to our income tax expense.

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Net Income from Continuing Operations
Net income from continuing operations was $39.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2016, compared to $61.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2015. The $22.4 million decrease in net income from continuing operations was primarily due to the decrease in operating income, partially offset by the decrease in other expense, net, as discussed above. As a result of the decrease in net income from continuing operations, partially offset by the reduction in diluted shares outstanding due to the share repurchases in the fourth quarter of 2015 and first quarter of 2016, diluted earnings per share from continuing operations for the year ended December 31, 2016 was $1.84 compared to $2.74 for 2015.
Discontinued Operations
Net loss from discontinued operations for the year ended December 31, 2016 was $1.9 million and primarily related to obligations for former employees, legal fees, and updated lease assumptions for vacated office space directly related to the sale of the Legal segment. Net loss from discontinued operations for the year ended December 31, 2015 was $2.8 million. See Note 3 "Discontinued Operations" within the notes to our consolidated financial statements for additional information about our discontinued operations.
EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA
EBITDA decreased $24.5 million, or 16.9%, to $120.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2016, from $145.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2015. Adjusted EBITDA decreased $10.8 million, or 7.8%, to $128.5 million in 2016 from $139.3 million in 2015. The decrease in EBITDA was primarily due to the decrease in segment operating income, as discussed below in Segment Results, and the decrease in litigation and other gains. The decrease in Adjusted EBITDA was primarily due to the decrease in segment operating income, exclusive of restructuring charges.
Adjusted Net Income from Continuing Operations
Adjusted net income from continuing operations increased $1.2 million, or 1.8%, to $68.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2016, compared to $67.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2015. As a result of the increase in adjusted net income from continuing operations, coupled with the reduction in diluted shares outstanding due to the share repurchases in the fourth quarter of 2015 and first quarter of 2016, adjusted diluted earnings per share from continuing operations for 2016 was $3.21, compared to $2.99 for 2015.
Segment Results
Healthcare
Revenues
Healthcare segment revenues decreased $22.0 million, or 4.9%, to $424.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2016, from $446.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2015. Revenues for 2016 included $10.3 million from our acquisitions of MyRounding and HSM Consulting, both of which were completed during 2016, and $10.7 million of incremental revenues due to the full year impact in 2016 of our acquisition of Studer Group, which was completed mid-first quarter 2015.
For the year ended December 31, 2016, revenues from fixed-fee engagements, time-and-expense engagements, performance-based arrangements, and software support and maintenance arrangements represented 68.9%, 11.6%, 13.5%, and 6.0% of this segment’s revenues, respectively, compared to 75.7%, 7.2%, 11.7%, and 5.4%, respectively, in 2015.
Of the overall $22.0 million decrease in revenues, $39.2 million was attributable to a decrease in revenue from our full-time billable consultants, partially offset by a $17.2 million increase in revenue generated by our full-time equivalents.
The decrease in revenue attributable to our full-time billable consultants reflected decreases in the average number of full-time billable consultants, the average billing rate, and consultant utilization rate. This decrease in revenue was largely driven by a decrease in revenue in our revenue cycle and cost and clinical solutions compared to the prior year. Performance-based fee revenue was $57.2 million in 2016 compared to $52.3 million in 2015. We expect performance-based fees to decline in 2017 compared to 2016 due to changes in our clients' risk sharing preferences and the mix of services we provide. Performance-based fee arrangements may cause significant variations in revenues, operating results, and average billing rates due to our level of execution and the timing of achievement of the performance-based criteria.
The increase in full-time equivalent revenues was primarily attributable to the full period impact of our acquisition of Studer Group, as well as overall growth of the Studer Group practice, and reflected increases in both the average number of full-time equivalents and revenue per full-time equivalent in 2016 compared to 2015.

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Operating Income
Healthcare segment operating income decreased $21.7 million, or 12.8%, to $147.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2016, from $169.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2015. The Healthcare segment operating margin, defined as segment operating income expressed as a percentage of segment revenues, decreased to 34.8% in 2016 from 37.9% in 2015. The decrease in this segment’s operating margin was primarily attributable to an increase in salaries and related expenses for our revenue-generating professionals as a percentage of revenues, as well as increases in salaries and related expenses for our support personnel and restructuring charges, partially offset by a decrease in share-based compensation expense for our revenue-generating professionals as a percentage of revenues in 2016 compared to 2015.
Over the past twelve months, the Healthcare segment has experienced four consecutive quarters of declining revenues, with fourth quarter 2016 revenues being the lowest since the first quarter of 2015. This decline is primarily driven by softness in our revenue cycle and cost and clinical solutions. This softness is attributable to decreased demand for our services, the winding down of some of our larger projects and a trend toward smaller projects, as well as fewer large integrated projects. In light of these challenges, several initiatives have been undertaken to improve the segment's financial performance, including repositioning our solutions to address the most critical needs of our clients, the expansion of our existing services such as those in our Studer Group, strategy, physician and technology offerings, as well as workforce reductions to better align resources with market demand. In the event that the financial performance of the Healthcare segment does not meet our expectations during 2017, we may be required to perform an interim impairment analysis with respect to the carrying value of goodwill for this reporting unit prior to our annual test, and based on the outcome of that analysis, could be required to take a non-cash impairment charge as a result of any such test. As of December 31, 2016, the Healthcare segment's carrying amount of goodwill was $636.8 million. For further discussion of our 2016 annual goodwill impairment test, see "Critical Accounting Policies - Carrying Values of Goodwill and Intangible Assets" below and Note 5 "Goodwill and Intangible Assets" within the notes to our consolidated financial statements.
Education and Life Sciences
Revenues
Education and Life Sciences segment revenues increased $11.0 million, or 6.6%, to $179.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2016, from $167.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2015.
Revenues from fixed-fee engagements, time-and-expense engagements, performance-based arrangements, and software support and maintenance arrangements represented 21.0%, 73.4%, 0.6%, and 5.0% of this segment’s revenues, respectively, during 2016, compared to 32.2%, 62.7%, 0.3%, and 4.8%, respectively, during 2015.
Of the overall $11.0 million increase in revenues, $12.6 million was attributable to an increase in revenue generated by our full-time billable consultants, partially offset by a $1.6 million decrease in revenue generated by our full-time equivalents. The increase in revenues from our full-time billable consultants was driven by strengthened demand for the segment's services and reflected an increase in the average number of full-time billable consultants, partially offset by decreases in consultant utilization rate and average billing rate in 2016 compared to 2015. The decrease in revenue from our full-time equivalents was largely driven by a decrease in license revenues, and reflected decreases in the average number of full-time equivalents and revenue per full-time equivalent in 2016 compared to 2015.
Operating Income
Education and Life Sciences segment operating income decreased $1.0 million, or 2.2%, to $43.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2016, from $44.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2015. The Education and Life Sciences segment operating margin decreased to 24.2% for 2016 from 26.3% for 2015. The decrease in this segment’s operating margin was primarily attributable to an increase in salaries and related expenses for our revenue-generating professionals and training expenses, both as a percentage of revenues, which were largely the result of our ongoing cloud-based ERP investment, partially offset by decreases in contractor expense, project costs, and bonus expense for our revenue-generating professionals.
Business Advisory
Revenues
Business Advisory segment revenues increased $39.4 million, or 47.5%, to $122.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2016, from $83.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2015. Revenues for 2016 included $24.2 million from our acquisition of ADI Strategies, which was completed during 2016, and $8.6 million of incremental revenues due to the full year impact in 2016 of our acquisitions of Cloud62 and Rittman Mead India, which were completed in 2015.
For the year ended December 31, 2016, revenues from fixed-fee engagements, time-and-expense engagements, performance-based engagements, and software support and maintenance arrangements represented 11.5%, 81.7%, 5.0%, and 1.8% of this segment’s revenues, respectively, compared to 14.7%, 75.3%, 9.6%, and 0.4%, respectively, in 2015. Performance-based fee revenue for the year

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ended December 31, 2016 was $6.2 million, of which $5.3 million was generated by Huron Transaction Advisory LLC, our registered broker-dealer. Performance-based fee revenue for the year ended December 31, 2015 was $8.0 million, of which $5.2 million was generated by Huron Transaction Advisory LLC. The level of performance-based fees earned may vary based on our clients’ preferences and the mix of services we provide. Performance-based fee arrangements may cause significant variations in revenues, operating results, and average billing rates due to our level of execution and the timing of achievement of the performance-based criteria.
Of the overall $39.4 million increase in revenues, $34.7 million was attributable to an increase in revenue generated by our full-time billable consultants and $4.7 million was attributable to our full-time equivalents. The increase in revenue from our full-time billable consultants reflected an increase in the average number of full-time billable consultants, partially offset by decreases in the average billing rate and consultant utilization rate when comparing 2016 to 2015. The increase in the average number of full-time billable consultants was primarily the result of our acquisitions of ADI Strategies and Cloud62. The increase in revenue from our full-time equivalents reflected increases in both the average number of full-time equivalents and revenue per full-time equivalent in 2016 compared to 2015.
Operating Income
Business Advisory segment operating income increased by $5.2 million, or 27.0%, to $24.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2016, compared to $19.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2015. Segment operating margin decreased to 20.0% for 2016 from 23.2% for 2015. The decrease in this segment’s operating margin was primarily attributable to increases in salaries and related expenses for our revenue-generating professionals as a percentage of revenues, as well as an increase in contractor expense as a percentage of revenues. These decreases to operating margin were partially offset by revenue growth that outpaced the increases in performance bonus expense and share-based compensation expense for our revenue-generating professionals. The overall decrease in this segment's operating margin reflects an increase in the Enterprise Solutions and Analytics practice revenue as a percentage of this segment's total revenue, as the recent growth of this practice, which has lower operating margins, outpaced the growth of the legacy Business Advisory practice.
Year Ended December 31, 2015 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2014
Revenues
Revenues increased $71.3 million, or 11.4%, to $699.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, from $627.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. Revenues for 2015 included $81.5 million from our acquisitions of Studer Group, Cloud62, and Rittman Mead India, which were completed in 2015, and $11.5 million of incremental revenues due to the full year impact in 2015 of our acquisitions of Vonlay and Threshold Consulting, which were completed in 2014.
Of the overall $71.3 million increase in revenues, $79.4 million was attributable to an increase in revenue generated by our full-time equivalents, partially offset by an $8.1 million decrease in revenue from our full-time billable consultants.
The increase in revenue attributable to full-time equivalents primarily reflected the revenue generated by our healthcare coaches in the Healthcare segment, which was the result of our acquisition of Studer Group during the first quarter of 2015.
The decrease in full-time billable consultant revenues reflected a decrease in the average billing rate, partially offset by increases in the average number of billable consultants and consultant utilization rate. As discussed below in Segment Results, this decrease in revenue was primarily the result of lower revenues from full-time billable consultants in our Healthcare segment, which was largely driven by lower performance-based fees, a decrease in revenue in our performance improvement solutions, and project timing, all compared to the prior year, partially offset by strengthened demand for our services in the Education and Life Sciences and Business Advisory segments.
Total Direct Costs
Our total direct costs increased $29.8 million, or 7.7%, to $418.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 from $388.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. Total direct costs for the year ended December 31, 2015 included $43.0 million from Studer Group. The overall increase primarily related to a $39.0 million increase in salaries and related expenses for our revenue-generating professionals, a $12.1 million increase in intangible asset amortization expense, and a $3.6 million increase in product and event costs, partially offset by a $23.7 million decrease in bonus expense for our revenue-generating professionals and a $3.3 million decrease in contractor expense during 2015 compared to 2014.
As a percentage of revenues, our total direct costs decreased to 59.9% during 2015 compared to 62.0% during 2014, and primarily reflected the decrease in bonus expense for our revenue-generating professionals and the decrease in contractor expense. These decreases were partially offset by increases, as a percentage of revenues, in intangible asset amortization expense, salaries and related expenses for our revenue-generating professionals, and product and event costs, all of which were largely driven by the acquisition of Studer Group during 2015.
Total direct costs for the year ended December 31, 2015 included $15.6 million of share-based compensation expense for our revenue-generating professionals compared to $14.0 million in 2014.

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Total direct costs for the year ended December 31, 2015 also included $16.8 million of amortization expense for intangible assets, primarily representing customer-related assets and software acquired in business combinations, and software development costs, compared to $4.6 million of amortization expense in 2014. The $12.2 million increase in amortization expense was primarily attributable to $13.9 million of amortization expense for intangible assets acquired in the Studer Group acquisition, partially offset by other intangible assets that became fully amortized during 2014.
Operating Expenses and Other Operating Gains
Selling, general and administrative expenses increased $25.1 million, or 18.9%, to $157.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to $132.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. Selling, general and administrative expenses for the year ended December 31, 2015 included $23.2 million from Studer Group. This overall increase was primarily related to a $12.4 million increase in salaries and related expenses for our support personnel, a $3.1 million increase in facilities and other office related expenses, a $1.8 million increase in bonus expense, a $1.1 million increase in promotion and sponsorship expenses, and a $0.9 million increase in outside professional services expenses. As a percentage of revenues, selling, general and administrative expenses increased to 22.6% during 2015 compared to 21.2% during 2014, primarily due to the items described above. Also included in selling, general and administrative expenses is share-based compensation expense for our non-revenue-generating professionals, which totaled $3.6 million in 2015, compared to $4.7 million in 2014.
Restructuring charges for the year ended December 31, 2015 totaled $3.3 million, compared to $2.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. The charges in 2015 consisted of $2.8 million related to workforce reductions to better align our resources with market demand and $0.5 million related to office exit costs primarily related to updated assumptions for the lease accrual of the Washington, D.C. space vacated in the fourth quarter of 2014. Of the $3.3 million pretax charge, $1.2 million related to our Healthcare segment, $1.1 million related to our All Other segment as we wound down our public sector consulting practice and our foreign consulting operations based in the Middle East, and $1.0 million related to our corporate operations. The $2.8 million charge in 2014 related to the consolidation of office spaces in Washington, D.C., Chicago, and New York, and the closure of our office in San Diego. The $2.8 million charge for office space reductions primarily includes $1.8 million related to the accrual of our remaining lease obligations at vacated spaces, net of estimated sublease income, and $0.9 million related to accelerated depreciation of assets disposed of as a result of the exit of space. The vacated locations in Chicago and New York were acquired as part of business acquisitions during 2013 and 2014. The $2.8 million total charge in 2014 related to our corporate operations. See Note 10 “Restructuring Charges” within the notes to our consolidated financial statements for further discussion of our restructuring expenses.
Litigation and other gains totaled $9.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to $0.6 million during the year ended December 31, 2014. The gain of $9.5 million in 2015 consisted of a $9.2 million net gain from litigation settlements and a $0.3 million remeasurement gain related to a decrease in the fair value of a contingent consideration liability incurred in connection with a business acquisition that was completed in the fourth quarter of 2014. During the fourth quarter of 2015, we settled two lawsuits brought by Huron, resulting in a gain of $10.0 million being recorded. We collected the $10.0 million in January 2016. During the second quarter of 2015, we recorded a net litigation accrual of $0.8 million related to the settlement of a legal claim. During the year ended December 31, 2014, we recorded remeasurement gains totaling $0.6 million related to a decrease in the fair value of a contingent consideration liability incurred in connection with another business acquisition that was completed in the first quarter of 2014.
Depreciation and amortization expense increased $9.7 million, or 62.7%, to $25.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, from $15.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. The increase was primarily attributable to $7.3 million of amortization expense for intangible assets acquired in the Studer Group acquisition and $1.2 million of depreciation expense for fixed assets acquired in the Studer Group acquisition. Intangible asset amortization included within operating expenses relates to certain customer relationships, non-competition agreements, and trade names acquired in connection with our business acquisitions.
Operating Income
Operating income increased $15.2 million, or 17.2%, to $103.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, from $88.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. Operating margin, which is defined as operating income expressed as a percentage of revenues, increased to 14.8% in 2015 compared to 14.1% in 2014. The increase in operating margin was primarily attributable to the decrease in bonus expense for our revenue-generating professionals and the increase in litigation and other gains, largely offset by the increases, as a percentage of revenues, in intangible asset amortization expense and salaries and related expenses for both our revenue-generating professionals and support personnel.
Other Expense, Net
Total other expense, net increased $11.7 million to $19.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, from $8.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. The increase was primarily attributable to a $9.5 million increase in interest expense, net and a $1.5 million increase in foreign currency transaction losses. The increase in interest expense, net was due to our Convertible Notes issued in September 2014 and interest expense resulting from higher levels of borrowings under our credit facility. During 2015, cash interest expense related to the coupon

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of the Convertible Notes was $3.1 million and the non-cash interest expense related to the amortization of the debt discount and debt issuance costs totaled $8.3 million. During 2014, cash interest expense related to the coupon of the Convertible Notes was $1.0 million and the non-cash interest expense related to the amortization of the debt discount and debt issuance costs totaled $2.5 million.
Income Tax Expense
For the year ended December 31, 2015, we recognized income tax expense from continuing operations of $21.7 million on income from continuing operations of $83.6 million, for an effective tax rate of 25.9%. For the year ended December 31, 2014, we recognized income tax expense from continuing operations of $33.1 million on income from continuing operations of $80.1 million, for an effective tax rate of 41.3%. Our effective tax rate for 2015 was lower than the statutory rate, inclusive of state income taxes, primarily due to the impact of a tax election made in the fourth quarter of 2015 to classify two of our wholly-owned foreign subsidiaries as disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes. As a result of this election, we expect to realize an income tax benefit of $13.0 million, of which $0.7 million is unrecognized, resulting in a net recognized tax benefit of $12.3 million. Our effective tax rate for 2014 was higher than the statutory rate, inclusive of state income taxes, primarily due to an increase in valuation allowance and foreign source losses with no tax benefits.
Net Income from Continuing Operations
Net income from continuing operations was $61.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to $47.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. The $14.9 million increase in net income from continuing operations was primarily due to the increase in operating income, as well as the decrease in income tax expense due to our check-the-box election, partially offset by the increase in interest expense, as discussed above. As a result of the increase in net income from continuing operations, diluted earnings per share from continuing operations for the year ended December 31, 2015 was $2.74 compared to $2.05 for 2014.
Discontinued Operations
Net loss from discontinued operations was $2.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to net income from discontinued operations of $32.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. See Note 3 "Discontinued Operations" within the notes to our consolidated financial statements for additional information about our discontinued operations.
EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA
EBITDA increased $37.0 million, or 34.2%, to $145.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, from $108.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. Adjusted EBITDA increased $28.7 million, or 25.9%, to $139.3 million in 2015 from $110.6 million in 2014. The increase in EBITDA was primarily due to the increase in segment operating income, exclusive of the increase in amortization expense, as discussed below in Segment Results. The increase in Adjusted EBITDA was primarily due to the increase in segment operating income, exclusive of the increase in amortization expense, partially offset by an increase in corporate expenses, exclusive of litigation and other gains.
Adjusted Net Income from Continuing Operations
Adjusted net income from continuing operations increased $11.4 million, or 20.4%, to $67.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to $56.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. The increase was primarily attributable to the increase in segment operating income, exclusive of the increase in amortization expense, partially offset by an increase in corporate expenses and interest and other expenses, exclusive of litigation and other gains. As a result of the increase in adjusted net income from continuing operations, adjusted diluted earnings per share from continuing operations for 2015 was $2.99, compared to $2.45 for 2014.
Segment Results
Healthcare
Revenues
Healthcare segment revenues increased $31.1 million, or 7.5%, to $446.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, from $415.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. Revenues for 2015 included $79.8 million from our acquisition of Studer Group completed in 2015, and $10.7 million of incremental revenues due to the full year impact in 2015 of our acquisition of Vonlay completed in 2014. Revenues for 2015 were negatively impacted by a $0.8 million charge related to the fair value adjustment of deferred revenue acquired in the Studer Group acquisition. The $0.8 million charge reflected the total fair value adjustment.
During 2015, revenues from fixed-fee engagements, time-and-expense engagements, performance-based arrangements, and software support and maintenance arrangements represented 75.7%, 7.2%, 11.7%, and 5.4% of this segment’s revenues, respectively, compared to 65.0%, 5.4%, 24.8%, and 4.8%, respectively, in 2014.
Of the overall $31.1 million increase in revenues, $80.0 million was attributable to an increase in revenue from our full-time equivalents, partially offset by a $48.9 million decrease in revenue attributable to our full-time billable consultants.

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The increase in revenue attributable to our full-time equivalents reflected increases in both the average number of full-time equivalents and revenue per full-time equivalent in 2015 compared to 2014, and is primarily the result of our Studer Group acquisition.
The decrease in revenue attributable to our full-time billable consultants reflected decreases in the average billing rate and consultant utilization rate, partially offset by an increase in the average number of full-time billable consultants. This decrease in revenue was largely driven by lower performance-based fees, a decrease in revenue in our cost and clinical solutions, and project timing, all compared to the prior year. Performance-based fee revenue was $52.3 million during 2015 compared to $103.2 million during 2014. The level of performance-based fees earned may vary based on our clients’ risk sharing preferences and the mix of services we provide. Performance-based fee arrangements may cause significant variations in revenues, operating results, and average billing rates due to our level of execution and the timing of achievement of the performance-based criteria.
Operating Income
Healthcare segment operating income increased $10.5 million, or 6.6%, to $169.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, from $159.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. The Healthcare segment operating margin, defined as segment operating income expressed as a percentage of segment revenues, decreased slightly to 37.9% in 2015 from 38.2% in 2014. The slight decrease in this segment’s operating margin was primarily attributable to increases, as a percentage of revenues, in salaries and related expenses for our revenue-generating professionals, salaries and related expenses and bonus expense for our support personnel, intangible asset amortization expense related to our acquisition of Studer Group, and product and event costs during 2015 compared to the prior year. The unfavorable impact of these items was largely offset by a decrease in bonus expense for our revenue-generating professionals, as well as a decrease in technology expense, during 2015 compared to 2014.
Education and Life Sciences
Revenues
Education and Life Sciences segment revenues increased $22.0 million, or 15.1%, to $167.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, from $146.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. Revenues from fixed-fee engagements, time-and-expense engagements, performance-based arrangements, and software support and maintenance arrangements represented 32.2%, 62.7%, 0.3%, and 4.8% of this segment’s revenues, respectively, during 2015. Revenues from fixed-fee engagements, time-and-expense engagements, and software support and maintenance arrangements represented 24.3%, 71.2%, and 4.5% of this segment's revenues, respectively, during 2014.
Of the overall $22.0 million increase in revenues, $21.8 million was attributable to an increase in revenue generated by our full-time billable consultants and $0.2 million was attributable to our full-time equivalents. The overall increase in revenues was driven by strong demand across all practices within this segment. The increase in revenues from our full-time billable consultants reflected increases in the average number of full-time billable consultants, consultant utilization rate, and average billing rate in 2015 compared to 2014. The increase in revenue from our full-time equivalents reflected an increase in revenue per full-time equivalent in 2015 compared to 2014.
Operating Income
Education and Life Sciences segment operating income increased $8.1 million, or 22.4%, to $44.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, from $36.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. The Education and Life Sciences segment operating margin increased to 26.3% for 2015 from 24.8% for 2014. The increase in this segment’s operating margin was primarily attributable to revenue growth that outpaced the increase in salaries and related expenses for both our revenue-generating professionals and support personnel, as well as a decrease in contractor expense, partially offset by an increase in bonus expense for our revenue-generating professionals and support personnel as a percentage of revenues.
Business Advisory
Revenues
Business Advisory segment revenues increased $20.1 million, or 32.0%, to $83.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, from $62.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. Revenues for 2015 included $1.6 million from our acquisitions of Cloud62 and Rittman Mead India, which were completed in 2015, and $0.8 million of incremental revenues due to the full year impact in 2015 of our acquisition of Threshold Consulting completed in 2014. Revenues from fixed-fee engagements, time-and-expense engagements, performance-based engagements, and software support and maintenance arrangements represented 14.7%, 75.3%, 9.6%, and 0.4% of this segment’s revenues, respectively, during 2015. Revenues from fixed-fee engagements, time-and-expense engagements, and performance-based engagements represented 13.8%, 79.5%, and 6.7% of this segment’s revenues, respectively, in 2014. Performance-based fee revenue for the year ended December 31, 2015 was $8.0 million, of which $5.2 million was generated by Huron Transaction Advisory LLC, our registered broker-dealer. Performance-based fee revenue for the year ended December 31, 2014 was $4.2 million, of which $2.5 million was generated by Huron Transaction Advisory LLC. The level of performance-based fees earned may vary based on our clients’ preferences and the mix of

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services we provide. Performance-based fee arrangements may cause significant variations in revenues, operating results, and average billing rates due to our level of execution and the timing of achievement of the performance-based criteria.
The $20.1 million increase in revenues was attributable to an increase in revenue generated by our full-time billable consultants. This revenue growth reflected increases in the average number of full-time billable consultants and consultant utilization rate, partially offset by a decrease in the average billing rate when comparing 2015 to 2014. The decrease in the average billing rate was largely the result of our acquisition of Rittman Mead India.
Operating Income
Business Advisory segment operating income increased by $5.2 million, or 37.2%, to $19.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to $14.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. Segment operating margin increased to 23.2% for 2015 from 22.3% for 2014. The increase in this segment’s operating margin was primarily attributable to revenue growth that outpaced increases in salaries and related expenses and bonus expense for our revenue-generating professionals and a decrease in contractor expense, partially offset by increases, as a percentage of revenues, in salaries and related expenses and bonus expense for our support personnel and practice administration and meetings expenses.
LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
Cash and cash equivalents were $17.0 million, $58.4 million, and $256.9 million at December 31, 2016, 2015, and 2014, respectively. As of December 31, 2016, our primary sources of liquidity are cash on hand, cash flows from our U.S. operations, and borrowing capacity available under our credit facility. 
Cash Flows (in thousands):
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Net cash provided by operating activities
 
$
128,311

 
$
164,267

 
$
146,453

Net cash used in investing activities
 
(86,636
)
 
(272,158
)
 
(93,831
)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities
 
(83,163
)
 
(89,955
)
 
146,170

Effect of exchange rate changes on cash
 
78

 
(589
)
 
(51
)
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents
 
$
(41,410
)
 
$
(198,435
)
 
$
198,741

Operating Activities
Net cash provided by operating activities totaled $128.3 million, $164.3 million, and $146.5 million for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015, and 2014, respectively. Our operating assets and liabilities consist primarily of receivables from billed and unbilled services, accounts payable and accrued expenses, accrued payroll and related benefits, and deferred revenues. The volume of services rendered and the related billings and timing of collections on those billings, as well as payments of our accounts payable and salaries, bonuses, and related benefits to employees affect these account balances.
The decrease in cash provided by operations in 2016 compared to 2015 was primarily attributable to lower net income, a decrease in cash collections from clients, and an increase in accounts payable payments to vendors, largely offset by a decrease in the amount paid for annual performance bonuses during the first quarter of 2016 compared to the first quarter of 2015 and the collection of a settlement receivable in the first quarter of 2016.
The increase in cash provided by operations in 2015 compared to 2014 was primarily attributable to increased cash collections from clients, driven by our growth in revenues, as well as lower tax payments, partially offset by an increase in operating expenditures and an increase in the amount paid for annual performance bonuses during the first quarter of 2015 compared to the first quarter of 2014.
Investing Activities
Net cash used in investing activities was $86.6 million, $272.2 million, and $93.8 million for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015, and 2014, respectively.
The use of cash in 2016 primarily consisted of $69.1 million for purchases of businesses and $13.9 million for purchases of property and equipment.
The use of cash in 2015 primarily consisted of $340.0 million for purchases of businesses, $18.6 million for purchases of property and equipment, and $15.4 million for the purchase of convertible debt investments in Shorelight Holdings, LLC (“Shorelight”). Shorelight, the parent company of Shorelight Education, is a U.S.-based company that partners with leading nonprofit universities to increase access and retention of international students, boost institutional growth, and enhance an institution’s global footprint. The zero coupon convertible notes

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will mature on July 1, 2020, unless converted earlier. The use of cash in 2015 was partially offset by the net proceeds received of $108.5 million for the sale of the Huron Legal segment in December 2015. See Note 3 "Discontinued Operations" within the notes to our consolidated financial statements for information about the sale of the Huron Legal segment.
The use of cash in 2014 primarily consisted of $54.0 million for purchases of businesses, $25.9 million for purchases of property and equipment, and $12.5 million for the purchase of convertible debt investments in Shorelight.
We estimate that cash utilized for purchases of property and equipment in 2017 will be approximately $25 million, primarily consisting of leasehold improvements and information technology related equipment to support our corporate infrastructure.
Financing Activities
Net cash used in financing activities was $83.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. During 2016, we borrowed $200.0 million under our credit facility, primarily to fund the acquisitions of HSM Consulting and ADI Strategies and our annual performance bonus payment, and we made repayments on our credit facility of $224.0 million. We also repurchased and retired $55.3 million of our common stock under our Share Repurchase Program, as discussed below.
Net cash used in financing activities was $90.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2015. During 2015, we borrowed $314.0 million under our credit facility, including $102.0 million for the Studer Group acquisition, made repayments on our credit facility of $365.8 million, and repurchased and retired $34.6 million of our common stock under our Share Repurchase Program.
Net cash provided by financing activities was $146.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. During 2014, we issued $250 million principal amount of the Convertible Notes, which provided proceeds of $242.7 million, net of issuance costs. In connection with the issuance of the Convertible Notes, we paid $42.1 million for the convertible note hedge transactions and received $23.6 million for the sale of warrants. Borrowings made under our credit facility to fund operations during 2014 totaled $129.0 million, with repayments during the period totaling $154.0 million. During 2014, we repurchased and retired $50.0 million of our common stock under the February 2014 Share Repurchase Program, as defined below, which completed the repurchase program.
Share Repurchase Programs
In February 2014, our board of directors authorized a share repurchase program permitting us to repurchase up to $50 million of our common stock through February 28, 2015 (the “February 2014 Share Repurchase Program”). We completed the February 2014 Share Repurchase Program in October 2014.
We currently have a share repurchase program permitting us to repurchase up to $125 million of our common stock through October 31, 2017 (the "Share Repurchase Program"). The amount and timing of the repurchases will be determined by management and will depend on a variety of factors, including the trading price of our common stock, general market and business conditions, and applicable legal requirements. No shares were repurchased under this program in 2014. In 2015, we repurchased and retired 583,880 shares for $34.6 million, and in 2016, we repurchased and retired 982,192 shares for $55.3 million. As of December 31, 2016, $35.1 million remains available for share repurchases.
Financing Arrangements
At December 31, 2016, we had $250 million principal amount of our 1.25% convertible senior notes outstanding and $68.0 million outstanding under our senior secured credit facility, as discussed below.
1.25% Convertible Senior Notes
In September 2014, we issued $250 million principal amount of the Convertible Notes in a private offering. The Convertible Notes are senior unsecured obligations of the Company and will pay interest semi-annually on April 1 and October 1 of each year at an annual rate of 1.25%. The Convertible Notes will mature on October 1, 2019, unless earlier repurchased by the Company or converted in accordance with their terms.
Upon conversion, the Convertible Notes will be settled, at our election, in cash, shares of the Company’s common stock, or a combination of cash and shares of the Company’s common stock. Our current intent and policy is to settle conversions with a combination of cash and shares of common stock with the principal amount of the Convertible Notes paid in cash, in accordance with the settlement provisions of the Indenture.
The initial conversion rate for the Convertible Notes is 12.5170 shares of our common stock per $1,000 principal amount of the Convertible Notes, which is equal to an initial conversion price of approximately $79.89 per share of our common stock.
In connection with the issuance of the Convertible Notes, we entered into convertible note hedge transactions and warrant transactions. The convertible note hedge transactions are intended to reduce the potential future economic dilution associated with the conversion of the

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Convertible Notes and, combined with the warrants, effectively raise the price at which economic dilution would occur from the initial conversion price of approximately $79.89 to approximately $97.12 per share.
For further information, see Note 7 “Financing Arrangements” within the notes to our consolidated financial statements. For a discussion of certain risks and uncertainties related to the Convertible Notes see Part I—Item 1A. "Risk Factors.”
Senior Secured Credit Facility
The Company has a $500 million five-year senior secured revolving credit facility, subject to the terms of a Second Amended and Restated Credit Agreement dated as of March 31, 2015 (the "Amended Credit Agreement"), that becomes due and payable in full upon maturity on March 31, 2020. The Amended Credit Agreement provides the option to increase the revolving credit facility or establish term loan facilities in an aggregate amount of up to $100 million, subject to customary conditions and the approval of any lender whose commitment would be increased, resulting in a maximum available principal amount under the Amended Credit Agreement of $600 million. The initial borrowings under the Amended Credit Agreement were used to refinance borrowings outstanding under a prior credit agreement, and future borrowings under the Amended Credit Agreement may be used for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions of businesses, share repurchases, and general corporate purposes.
Fees and interest on borrowings vary based on our Consolidated Leverage Ratio (as defined in the Amended Credit Agreement). At our option, borrowings under the Amended Credit Agreement will bear interest at one, two, three or six-month LIBOR or an alternate base rate, in each case plus the applicable margin. The applicable margin will fluctuate between 1.25% per annum and 1.75% per annum, in the case of LIBOR borrowings, or between 0.25% per annum and 0.75% per annum, in the case of base rate loans, based upon our Consolidated Leverage Ratio at such time.
Amounts borrowed under the Amended Credit Agreement may be prepaid at any time without premium or penalty. We are required to prepay the amounts outstanding under the Amended Credit Agreement in certain circumstances, including a requirement to pay all amounts outstanding under the Amended Credit Agreement 90 days prior to the Convertible Indebtedness Maturity Date (as defined in the Amended Credit Agreement) unless (1) the Convertible Indebtedness Maturity Date is waived or extended to a later date, (2) the Company can demonstrate (a) Liquidity (as defined in the Amended Credit Agreement) in an amount at least equal to the principal amount due on the Convertible Indebtedness Maturity Date, and (b) financial covenant compliance after giving effect to such payments and any additional indebtedness incurred on a pro forma basis, or (3) this requirement is waived by the Required Lenders (as defined in the Amended Credit Agreement). In addition, we have the right to permanently reduce or terminate the unused portion of the commitments provided under the Amended Credit Agreement at any time.
The Amended Credit Agreement contains usual and customary representations and warranties; affirmative and negative covenants, which include limitations on liens, investments, additional indebtedness, and restricted payments; and two quarterly financial covenants as follows: (i) a maximum Consolidated Leverage Ratio (defined as the ratio of debt to consolidated EBITDA) of either 3.25 to 1.00 or 3.50 to 1.00, depending on the measurement period, and (ii) a minimum Consolidated Interest Coverage Ratio (defined as the ratio of consolidated EBITDA to interest) of 3.50 to 1.00. Consolidated EBITDA for purposes of the financial covenants is calculated on a continuing operations basis and includes adjustments to add back share-based compensation costs, certain non-cash restructuring charges, and pro forma historical EBITDA for businesses acquired. At December 31, 2016, we were in compliance with these financial covenants with a Consolidated Leverage Ratio of 2.24 to 1.00 and a Consolidated Interest Coverage Ratio of 18.43 to 1.00.
The Amended Credit Agreement contains restricted payment provisions, including a potential limit on the amount of dividends we may pay. Pursuant to the terms of the Amended Credit Agreement, if our Consolidated Leverage Ratio is greater than 3.00, the amount of dividends and other Restricted Payments (as defined in the Amended Credit Agreement) we may pay is limited to an amount up to $50 million plus 50% of cumulative consolidated net income from the closing date of the Amended Credit Agreement plus 50% of the net cash proceeds from equity issuances after the closing date of the Amended Credit Agreement.
Borrowings outstanding under the Amended Credit Agreement at December 31, 2016 totaled $68.0 million. These borrowings carried a weighted average interest rate of 2.5%, including the effect of the interest rate swap described in Note 11 “Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activity" within the notes to the consolidated financial statements. Borrowings outstanding under the Amended Credit Agreement at December 31, 2015 were $92.0 million and carried a weighted average interest rate of 2.4%. The borrowing capacity under the revolving credit facility is reduced by any outstanding borrowings under the revolving credit facility and outstanding letters of credit. At December 31, 2016, we had outstanding letters of credit totaling $4.8 million, which are primarily used as security deposits for our office facilities. As of December 31, 2016, the unused borrowing capacity under the revolving credit facility was $427.2 million.
For further information, see Note 7 “Financing Arrangements” within the notes to our consolidated financial statements. For a discussion of certain risks and uncertainties related to the Amended Credit Agreement see Part I—Item 1A. "Risk Factors.”

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Future Needs
Our primary financing need has been to fund our growth. Our growth strategy is to expand our service offerings, which may require investments in new hires, acquisitions of complementary businesses, possible expansion into other geographic areas, and related capital expenditures. We believe our internally generated liquidity, together with our available cash on hand, the borrowing capacity available under our revolving credit facility, and access to external capital resources will be adequate to fund our long-term growth and capital needs arising from cash commitments and debt service obligations. Our ability to secure short-term and long-term financing in the future will depend on several factors, including our future profitability, the quality of our accounts receivable and unbilled services, our relative levels of debt and equity, and the overall condition of the credit markets.
CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS
The following table represents our significant obligations and commitments as of December 31, 2016 and the scheduled years of payments (in thousands).
 
 
 
Payments Due by Period
 
Total
 
Less than
1 Year
 
1-3 Years
 
3-5 Years
 
More than
5 Years
Long-term bank borrowings—principal and interest (1)
$
73,017

 
$
1,544

 
$
3,087

 
$
68,386

 
$

Convertible senior notes—principal and interest (2)
259,375

 
3,125

 
256,250

 

 

Operating lease obligations (3)
103,995

 
17,370

 
29,991

 
23,323

 
33,311

Purchase obligations (4)
18,407

 
11,512

 
6,895

 

 

Contingent consideration (5)
8,827

 
1,985

 
6,842

 

 

Uncertain tax positions (6)
3,340

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Deferred compensation (7)
16,356

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total contractual obligations
$
483,317

 
$
35,536

 
$
303,065

 
$
91,709

 
$
33,311

(1)
The interest payments on long-term bank borrowings are estimated in the table above based on the principal amount outstanding and the interest rate in effect as of December 31, 2016. Actual future interest payments will differ due to changes in our borrowings outstanding and the interest rate on those borrowings, as the interest rate varies based on the fluctuations in the variable base rates and the spread we pay over those base rates pursuant to the Amended Credit Agreement. Refer to “Liquidity and Capital Resources” and Note 7 “Financing Arrangements” within the notes to our consolidated financial statements for more information on our outstanding borrowings.
(2)
In September 2014, we issued $250 million principal of 1.25% convertible senior notes due 2019. We will pay cash interest on the outstanding notes at an annual rate of 1.25% semi-annually on April 1 and October 1 of each year until October 1, 2019, at which time we will repay any accrued and unpaid interest and the principal amount of all outstanding notes.
(3)
We lease our facilities under operating lease arrangements expiring on various dates through 2027, with various renewal options. We lease office facilities under non-cancelable operating leases that include fixed or minimum payments plus, in some cases, scheduled base rent increases over the term of the lease. Certain leases provide for monthly payments of real estate taxes, insurance and other operating expenses applicable to the property. Some of the leases contain provisions whereby the future rental payments may be adjusted for increases in operating expense above the specified amount.
(4)
Purchase obligations include agreements to purchase goods or services that are enforceable, are legally binding, and specify all significant terms, including fixed or minimum quantities to be purchased; fixed, minimum or variable price provisions; and the approximate timing of the transaction. Purchase obligations do not include agreements that are cancelable without penalty.
(5)
In connection with certain business acquisitions, we may be required to pay post-closing consideration to the sellers if specific financial performance targets are met over a number of years as specified in the related purchase agreements. As of December 31, 2016, the estimated fair value of the contingent consideration liability was $8.8 million. The maximum amount that may be paid under contingent consideration liabilities existing as of December 31, 2016 is $13.5 million.
(6)
Our liabilities for uncertain tax positions are classified as non-current. As we are unable to reasonably estimate the timing of future payments as it depends on examinations by taxing authorities, the related balance has not been reflected in the “Payments Due by Period” section of the table.
(7)
Included in deferred compensation and other liabilities on our consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2016 is a $16.4 million obligation for deferred compensation. As the specific payment dates for the deferred compensation are unknown, the related balances have not been reflected in the “Payments Due by Period” section of the table. This deferred compensation liability is fully funded by

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corresponding deferred compensation plan assets. Refer to Note 14 “Employee Benefit and Deferred Compensation Plans” within the notes to our consolidated financial statements for more information on our deferred compensation plan.
OFF-BALANCE SHEET ARRANGEMENTS
We are not a party to any material off-balance sheet arrangements.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations are based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”). Our significant accounting policies are discussed in Note 2 “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies,” within the notes to our consolidated financial statements. We regularly review our financial reporting and disclosure practices and accounting policies to ensure that our financial reporting and disclosures provide accurate information relative to the current economic and business environment. The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make assessments, estimates, and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements, as well as the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Critical accounting policies are those policies that we believe present the most complex or subjective measurements and have the most potential to impact our financial position and operating results. While all decisions regarding accounting policies are important, we believe that there are five accounting policies that could be considered critical: revenue recognition, allowances for doubtful accounts and unbilled services, business combinations, carrying values of goodwill and other intangible assets, and income taxes.
Revenue Recognition
Revenue is recognized when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, the related services are provided, the price is fixed or determinable, and collectability is reasonably assured. We generate our revenues from providing professional services under four types of billing arrangements: fixed-fee (including software license revenue), time-and-expense, performance-based, and software support and maintenance and subscriptions.
In fixed-fee billing arrangements, we agree to a pre-established fee in exchange for a predetermined set of professional services. We set the fees based on our estimates of the costs and timing for completing the engagements. We generally recognize revenues under fixed-fee billing arrangements using a proportionate performance approach, which is based on work completed to-date versus our estimates of the total services to be provided under the engagement. Contracts within our Studer Group solution are fixed-fee partner contracts with multiple deliverables, which primarily consist of coaching services, as well as seminars, materials and software products (“Partner Contracts”). Revenues for coaching services and software products are generally recognized on a straight-line basis over the length of the contract. All other revenues under Partner Contracts are recognized at the time the service is provided. Estimates of total engagement revenues and cost of services are monitored regularly during the term of the engagement. If our estimates indicate a potential loss, such loss is recognized in the period in which the loss first becomes probable and reasonably estimable.
We also generate revenues from software licenses for our revenue cycle management software and research administration and compliance software. Licenses for our revenue cycle management software are sold only as a component of our consulting projects, and the services we provide are essential to the functionality of the software. Therefore, revenues from these software licenses are recognized over the term of the related consulting services contract. License revenue from our research administration and compliance software is generally recognized in the month in which the software is delivered.
Time-and-expense billing arrangements require the client to pay based on the number of hours worked by our revenue-generating professionals at agreed upon rates. Time-and-expense arrangements also include certain speaking engagements, conferences, and publication orders purchased by our clients outside of Partner Contracts within our Studer Group solution. We recognize revenues under time-and-expense arrangements as the related services or publications are provided.
In performance-based billing arrangements, fees are tied to the attainment of contractually defined objectives. We enter into performance-based engagements in essentially two forms. First, we generally earn fees that are directly related to the savings formally acknowledged by the client as a result of adopting our recommendations for improving operational and cost effectiveness in the areas we review. Second, we have performance-based engagements in which we earn a success fee when and if certain pre-defined outcomes occur. We do not recognize revenues under performance-based billing arrangements until all related performance criteria are met.
Clients that have purchased one of our software licenses can pay an annual fee for software support and maintenance. We also generate subscription revenue from our cloud-based analytic tools and solutions. Software support and maintenance and subscription-based revenues are recognized ratably over the support or subscription period, which ranges from one to three years. These fees are billed in advance and included in deferred revenues until recognized.

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We have arrangements with clients in which we provide multiple elements of services under one engagement contract. Revenues under these types of arrangements are allocated to each element based on the element’s fair value and recognized pursuant to the criteria described above.
Provisions are recorded for the estimated realization adjustments on all engagements, including engagements for which fees are subject to review by the bankruptcy courts. Expense reimbursements that are billable to clients are included in total revenues and reimbursable expenses, and typically an equivalent amount of reimbursable expenses are included in total direct costs and reimbursable expenses. Reimbursable expenses are primarily recognized as revenue in the period in which the expense is incurred. Subcontractors that are billed to clients at cost are also included in reimbursable expenses. When billings do not specifically identify reimbursable expenses, we allocate the portion of the billings equivalent to these expenses to reimbursable expenses.
Differences between the timing of billings and the recognition of revenue are recognized as either unbilled services or deferred revenues in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. Revenues recognized for services performed but not yet billed to clients are recorded as unbilled services. Client prepayments and retainers are classified as deferred revenues and recognized over future periods as earned in accordance with the applicable engagement agreement.
Allowances for Doubtful Accounts and Unbilled Services
We maintain allowances for doubtful accounts and for services performed but not yet billed based on several factors, including the estimated cash realization from amounts due from clients, an assessment of a client’s ability to make required payments, and the historical percentages of fee adjustments and write-offs by age of receivables and unbilled services. The allowances are assessed by management on a regular basis. These estimates may differ from actual results. If the financial condition of a client deteriorates in the future, impacting the client’s ability to make payments, an increase to our allowance might be required or our allowance may not be sufficient to cover actual write-offs.
We record the provision for doubtful accounts and unbilled services as a reduction in revenue to the extent the provision relates to fee adjustments and other discretionary pricing adjustments. To the extent the provision relates to a client’s inability to make required payments on accounts receivables, we record the provision to selling, general and administrative expenses.
Business Combinations
The assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination, including identifiable intangible assets, are recorded at their estimated fair values as of the acquisition date. Goodwill is recorded as the excess of the fair value of consideration transferred, including any contingent consideration, over the fair value of the net assets acquired. We base the fair values of identifiable intangible assets on detailed valuations that require management to make significant judgments, estimates, and assumptions, such as the expected future cash flows to be derived from the intangible assets, discount rates that reflect the risk factors associated with future cash flows, and estimates of useful lives.
We measure and recognize contingent consideration at fair value as of the acquisition date. We estimate the fair value of contingent consideration based on either a probability-weighted assessment of the specific financial performance targets being achieved or a Monte Carlo simulation model, as appropriate. These fair value measurements require the use of significant judgments, estimates, and assumptions, including financial performance projections and discount rates. The fair value of the contingent consideration is reassessed quarterly based on assumptions used in our latest financial projections and input provided by practice leaders and management, with any change in the fair value estimate recorded in earnings in that period. Increases or decreases in the fair value of contingent consideration liabilities resulting from changes in the estimates or assumptions could materially impact the financial statements. See Note 4 "Acquisitions" within the notes to our consolidated financial statements for additional information regarding our acquisitions.
Carrying Values of Goodwill and Other Intangibles Assets
We test goodwill for impairment, at the reporting unit level, annually and whenever events or circumstances make it more likely than not that an impairment may have occurred. We perform our annual goodwill impairment test as of November 30 and monitor for interim triggering events on an ongoing basis. A reporting unit is an operating segment or one level below an operating segment (referred to as a component) to which goodwill is assigned when initially recorded. We assign goodwill to reporting units based on our integration plans and the expected synergies resulting from the acquisition. At the time of our November 30, 2016 annual goodwill impairment test, we had four reporting units with goodwill balances: our Healthcare and Education and Life Sciences operating segments, and our Business Advisory practice and Enterprise Solutions and Analytics practice, which together make up our Business Advisory operating segment.
Goodwill is reviewed for impairment utilizing a qualitative assessment or a quantitative two-step process. We have the option to make a qualitative assessment of a reporting unit’s goodwill for impairment. If we choose to perform a qualitative assessment and determine the fair value more likely than not exceeds the carrying value, no further evaluation is necessary. For reporting units where we perform the quantitative two-step process, the first step requires us to compare the fair value of each reporting unit, which we generally determine using a combination of the income approach and the market approach, to the respective carrying value, which includes goodwill. For a company

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such as ours, the income and market approaches will generally provide the most reliable indications of fair value because the value of such companies is dependent on their ability to generate earnings. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying value, the goodwill is not considered impaired. If the carrying value is higher than the fair value, there is an indication that an impairment may exist and the second step is required. In the second step, the implied fair value of goodwill is calculated as the excess of the fair value of a reporting unit over the fair values assigned to its assets and liabilities. If the implied fair value of goodwill is less than the carrying value of the reporting unit’s goodwill, the difference is recognized as a non-cash impairment loss.
We tested our goodwill for impairment once during 2016, as discussed below.
2016 Annual Goodwill Impairment Analysis.    Pursuant to our policy, we performed our annual goodwill impairment test as of November 30, 2016 on our four reporting units with goodwill balances: Healthcare, Education and Life Sciences, Business Advisory, and Enterprise Solutions and Analytics.
For each reporting unit, we reviewed goodwill for impairment utilizing the quantitative two-step process. We performed the first step of the quantitative two-step impairment test by comparing the fair value of each reporting unit to its respective carrying amount, including goodwill. Based on the results of the first step of the goodwill impairment test, we determined that the fair value of each of the Healthcare, Education and Life Sciences, Business Advisory, and Enterprise Solutions and Analytics reporting units exceeded its carrying value by 11%, 96%, 116%, and 11%, respectively. Since the fair value of each reporting unit exceeded its respective carrying value, the second step of the goodwill impairment test was not necessary.
In estimating the fair value of our Healthcare, Education and Life Sciences, Business Advisory, and Enterprise Solutions and Analytics reporting units, we relied on a combination of the income approach and the market approach, utilizing the guideline company method, with a fifty-fifty weighting.
In the income approach, we utilized a discounted cash flow analysis, which involves estimating the expected after-tax cash flows that will be generated by the reporting unit and then discounting those cash flows to present value reflecting the relevant risks associated with the reporting unit and the time value of money. This approach requires the use of significant estimates and assumptions, including long-term projections of future cash flows, market conditions, and discount rates reflecting the risk inherent in future cash flows. In estimating future cash flows, we relied on an internally generated six-year forecast. For periods after the six-year forecast, we assumed a long-term annual revenue growth rate of 3.5% for all reporting units. Our forecast is based on historical experience, current backlog, expected market demand, and other industry information. Our discounted cash flow analysis assumed a 10.0% weighted average cost of capital ("WACC") discount rate for the Healthcare and Education and Life Sciences reporting units, a 14.0% WACC discount rate for the Business Advisory reporting unit, and a 13.0% WACC discount rate for the Enterprise Solutions and Analytics reporting unit.
In the market approach, we utilized the guideline company method, which involved calculating valuation multiples based on operating data from guideline publicly traded companies. Multiples derived from guideline companies provide an indication of how much a knowledgeable investor in the marketplace would be willing to pay for a company. For each reporting unit, these multiples are evaluated and adjusted based on specific characteristics of the reporting unit relative to the selected guideline companies and applied to the reporting unit's operating data to arrive at an indication of value.
Determining the fair value of a reporting unit requires us to make significant judgments, estimates, and assumptions. While we believe that the estimates and assumptions underlying our valuation methodology are reasonable, these estimates and assumptions could have a significant impact on whether or not a non-cash impairment charge is recognized and also the magnitude of any such charge. The results of an impairment analysis are as of a point in time. There is no assurance that the actual future earnings or cash flows of our reporting units will be consistent with our projections. We will monitor any changes to our assumptions and will evaluate goodwill as deemed warranted during future periods. Any significant decline in our operations could result in non-cash goodwill impairment charges.
Over the past twelve months, our Healthcare segment has experienced four consecutive quarters of declining revenues, with fourth quarter 2016 revenues being the lowest since the first quarter of 2015. This decline is primarily driven by softness in our revenue cycle and cost and clinical solutions. This softness is attributable to decreased demand for our services, the winding down of some of our larger projects and a trend toward smaller projects, as well as fewer large integrated projects. In light of these challenges, several initiatives have been undertaken to improve the segment's financial performance, including repositioning our solutions to address the most critical needs of our clients, the expansion of our existing services such as those in our Studer Group, strategy, physician and technology offerings, as well as workforce reductions to better align resources with market demand. As of November 30, 2016, based on the results of the first step of the Healthcare goodwill impairment analysis, the reporting unit's fair value exceeded its carrying value by 11%. In the event that the financial performance of the Healthcare segment does not meet our expectations during 2017, we may be required to perform an interim impairment analysis with respect to the carrying value of goodwill for this reporting unit prior to our annual test, and based on the outcome of that analysis, could be required to take a non-cash impairment charge as a result of any such test.
Our Enterprise Solutions and Analytics reporting unit was established with the acquisition of Blue Stone International, LLC in 2013. Since that time, we have completed four additional business acquisitions, most recently the acquisition of ADI Strategies in May 2016. As discussed

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above in “Business Combinations,” we record the assets acquired and liabilities assumed in business combinations, including identifiable intangible assets, at their estimated fair values as of the acquisition date, and goodwill is recorded as the excess of the fair value of consideration transferred, including any contingent consideration, over the fair value of the net asset acquired. Therefore, the initial accounting for an acquisition results in its fair value equaling its carrying value. As of November 30, 2016, based on the results of the first step of the Enterprise Solutions and Analytics goodwill impairment analysis, the reporting unit’s fair value exceeded its carrying value by 11%. While the Enterprise Solutions and Analytics reporting unit’s 2016 revenue growth was in line with our expectations, and we expect revenue to continue to grow in 2017, due to this reporting unit’s relatively low headroom, in the event that the financial performance of the reporting unit does not meet our expectations during 2017, we may be required to perform an interim impairment analysis with respect to the carrying value of goodwill for this reporting unit prior to our annual test, and based on the outcome of that analysis, could be required to take a non-cash impairment charge as a result of any such test.
The table below presents, based on the goodwill impairment test performed as of November 30, 2016, the decrease in the fair value of our reporting units given a 100 basis point increase in the assumed discount rate or a 100 basis point decrease in the assumed long-term annual revenue growth rate.
 
 
Discount rate increased by
100 bps
 
Long-term growth rate decreased by
100 bps
Healthcare:
 
 
 
 
Decrease in fair value
 
$
(57,800
)
 
$
(41,200
)
Percentage by which fair value exceeds carrying value
 
3
%
 
5
%
Education and Life Sciences:
 
 
 
 
Decrease in fair value
 
$
(18,400
)
 
$
(13,300
)
Percentage by which fair value exceeds carrying value
 
82
%
 
86
%
Business Advisory:
 
 
 
 
Decrease in fair value
 
$
(2,400
)
 
$
(1,400
)
Percentage by which fair value exceeds carrying value
 
106
%
 
111
%
Enterprise Solutions and Analytics:
 
 
 
 
Decrease in fair value
 
$
(4,800
)
 
$
(3,000
)
Percentage by which fair value exceeds carrying value
 
5
%
 
7
%
The carrying values of goodwill for each of our reporting units as of December 31, 2016 are as follows (in thousands):
Reporting Unit
 
Carrying Value
of Goodwill
Healthcare
 
$
636,802

Education and Life Sciences
 
102,906

Business Advisory
 
16,094

Enterprise Solutions and Analytics
 
44,060

Total
 
$
799,862

Intangible assets represent purchased assets that lack physical substance but can be distinguished from goodwill. Our intangible assets, net of accumulated amortization, totaled $81.3 million at December 31, 2016 and primarily consist of customer relationships, customer contracts, trade names, technology and software, non-competition agreements, and publishing content, all of which were acquired through business combinations. We evaluate our intangible assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be recoverable. No impairment charges for intangible assets were recorded in 2016.
Income Taxes
Our income tax expense, deferred tax assets and liabilities, and reserves for unrecognized tax benefits reflect management’s best assessment of estimated future taxes to be paid. In determining our provision for income taxes on an interim basis, we estimate our annual effective tax rate based on information available at each interim period.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recorded for future tax consequences attributable to temporary differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. These deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be

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recovered or settled. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when, in management’s opinion, it is more likely than not that some portion or the entire deferred tax asset will not be realized.
Our tax positions are subject to income tax audits by federal, state, local, and foreign tax authorities. A tax benefit from an uncertain position may be recognized in the financial statements only if it is more likely than not that the position is sustainable, based on its technical merits. We measure the tax benefit recognized as the largest amount of benefit which is more likely than not to be realized upon settlement with the taxing authority. The estimate of the potential outcome of any uncertain tax issue is subject to management’s assessment of relevant risks, facts and circumstances existing at that time.
NEW ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS
Refer to Note 2 “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" within the notes to the consolidated financial statements for information on new accounting pronouncements.
SUBSEQUENT EVENTS
On January 9, 2017, we completed our acquisition of Pope Woodhead and Associates Limited ("Pope Woodhead"), a U.K.-based consulting firm providing market access capabilities to assist clients in developing value propositions for innovative medicines and technologies. The acquisition expands our life sciences strategy expertise and strengthens our ability to lead clients through complex payer and regulatory environments. The results of operations of Pope Woodhead will be included within the Education and Life Sciences segment from the date of acquisition. The acquisition of Pope Woodhead is not material to our consolidated financial statements. We have not yet completed a valuation of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed in the acquisition.
On February 16, 2017, we entered into an agreement to acquire Innosight Holdings, LLC ("Innosight"), a growth strategy firm focused on helping companies navigate disruptive change and manage strategic transformation. Under the terms of the purchase agreement, we will purchase Innosight for $100 million upon closing of the transaction, consisting of $90 million in cash and $10 million in Huron common stock, plus contingent consideration of up to $35 million if specific financial performance targets are met over a four-year period. The cash component of the transaction will be financed with cash on hand and borrowings under our senior secured credit facility. The results of operations of Innosight will be included within the Business Advisory segment. The transaction is expected to close in March 2017, subject to customary closing conditions.
ITEM 7A.
QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK.
We are exposed to market risks primarily from changes in interest rates and changes in the market value of our investments.
Market Risk and Interest Rate Risk
The fair value of our Convertible Notes is exposed to interest rate risk. Generally, the fair value of our fixed interest rate Convertible Notes will increase as interest rates fall and decrease as interest rates rise. In addition, the fair value of our Convertible Notes is affected by our stock price. The carrying value of our Convertible Notes was $224.1 million as of December 31, 2016, which represents the liability component of the $250 million principal balance. The estimated fair value of our Convertible Notes at December 31, 2016 was $245.0 million, and was determined based on the quoted bid price of the Convertible Notes in an over-the-counter market as of the last day of trading for the quarter ended December 31, 2016, which was $98.007 per $100 principal amount. At December 31, 2015, the carrying value of our Convertible Notes was $220.0 million, which represented the liability component of the $250 million principal balance, and the total estimated fair value of our Convertible Notes was $248.0 million, which was determined based on the quoted bid price of the Convertible Notes in an over-the-counter market as of the last day of trading for the year ended December 31, 2015, which was $99.204 per $100 principal amount.
Concurrent with the issuance of the Convertible Notes, we entered into separate convertible note hedge and warrant transactions. The convertible note hedge transactions are intended to reduce the potential future economic dilution associated with the conversion of the Convertible Notes and, combined with the warrants, effectively raise the price at which economic dilution would occur from the initial conversion price of approximately $79.89 to approximately $97.12 per share. Under the convertible note hedge transactions, we have the option to purchase a total of approximately 3.1 million shares of our common stock, which is the number of shares initially issuable upon conversion of the Convertible Notes in full, at a price of approximately $79.89, which corresponds to the initial conversion price of the Convertible Notes, subject to customary anti-dilution adjustments substantially similar to those in the Convertible Notes. Under the warrant transactions, the holders of the warrants have the option to purchase a total of approximately 3.1 million shares of our common stock at a price of approximately $97.12. If the average market value per share of our common stock for the reporting period exceeds the strike price of the warrants, the warrants will have a dilutive effect on our earnings per share.
We have exposure to changes in interest rates associated with borrowings under our bank credit facility, which has variable interest rates tied to LIBOR or an alternate base rate, at our option. At December 31, 2016, we had borrowings outstanding under the credit facility totaling $68.0 million that carried a weighted average interest rate of 2.5% including the effect of the interest rate swap described below. As of

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December 31, 2016 these variable rate borrowings were fully hedged against changes in interest rates by the interest rate swap described below, which had a notional amount of $68.0 million at December 31, 2016. As our variable rate borrowings were fully hedged as of December 31, 2016, a change in the interest rate would have no impact on our consolidated financial statements. At December 31, 2015, our borrowings outstanding under the credit facility totaled $92.0 million and carried a weighted average interest rate of 2.4%, including the effect of the interest rate swaps described below; and were fully hedged against changes in interest rates by our interest rate swaps, which had a notional amount of $92.0 million at December 31, 2015.
On December 8, 2011, we entered into a forward amortizing interest rate swap agreement effective February 29, 2012, which ended on April 14, 2016. We entered into this derivative instrument to hedge against the interest rate risks of our variable-rate borrowings described above. The swap had an initial notional amount of $56.6 million and amortized throughout the term. Under the terms of the interest rate swap agreement, we received from the counterparty interest on the notional amount based on one-month LIBOR and we paid to the counterparty a fixed rate of 0.9875%.
On May 30, 2012, we entered into an amortizing interest rate swap agreement effective May 31, 2012, which also ended on April 14, 2016. We entered into this derivative instrument to further hedge against the interest rate risks of our variable-rate borrowings. The swap had an initial notional amount of $37.0 million and amortized throughout the term. Under the terms of the interest rate swap agreement, we received from the counterparty interest on the notional amount based on one-month LIBOR and we paid to the counterparty a fixed rate of 0.70%.
On April 4, 2013, we entered into a forward amortizing interest rate swap agreement effective March 31, 2014 and ending on August 31, 2017. We entered into this derivative instrument to further hedge against the interest rate risks of our variable-rate borrowings. The swap had an initial notional amount of $60.0 million and amortized quarterly until April 2016. Upon expiration of the two interest rate swaps in April 2016 described above, the notional amount of this interest rate swap increased to $86.0 million and continues to amortize quarterly throughout the remaining term. Under the terms of the interest rate swap agreement, we receive from the counterparty interest on the notional amount based on one-month LIBOR and we pay to the counterparty a fixed rate of 0.985%.
We do not use derivative instruments for trading or other speculative purposes. From time to time, we invest excess cash in short-term marketable securities. These investments principally consist of overnight sweep accounts. Due to the short maturity of these investments, we have concluded that we do not have material market risk exposure.
We have a non-interest bearing convertible debt investment in a privately-held company, which we account for as an available-for-sale security. As such, the investment is carried at fair value with unrealized holding gains and losses excluded from earnings and reported in other comprehensive income. As of December 31, 2016, the fair value of the investment was $34.7 million, with a total cost basis of $27.9 million. At December 31, 2015, the fair value of the investment was $34.8 million, with a total cost basis of $27.9 million.
ITEM 8.
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA.
The Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements and supplementary data begin on page F-1 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
ITEM 9.
CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE.
None.
ITEM 9A.
CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES.
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
Our management, with the participation of the Company’s Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, has evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures (as such term is defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”)) as of December 31, 2016. Based on this evaluation, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer have concluded that, as of December 31, 2016, our disclosure controls and procedures were effective in recording, processing, summarizing and reporting, on a timely basis, information required to be disclosed by us in the reports we file or submit under the Exchange Act, and such information is accumulated and communicated to management as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.

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Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting (as such term is defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act) for the Company. Internal control over financial reporting is a process designed under the supervision of the Company’s Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, and effected by the Company’s board of directors, management, and other personnel to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with GAAP and includes those policies and procedures that:
(i)
Pertain to the maintenance of records that in reasonable detail accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the Company;
(ii)
Provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with GAAP, and that receipts and expenditures of the Company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the Company; and
(iii)
Provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the Company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Due to its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
In connection with the preparation of this report, our management, under the supervision and with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of the internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2016 using the criteria set forth by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”) in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013). As a result of that evaluation, management concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2016.
The effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2016 has been audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report appearing on page F-2 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting
There has been no change in our internal control over financial reporting (as such term is defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act) during the three months ended December 31, 2016 that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
ITEM 9B.
OTHER INFORMATION.
None.

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PART III
ITEM 10.
DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE.
Directors, Executive Officers, Promoters and Control Persons
The information required by this item is incorporated by reference from portions of our definitive proxy statement for our annual meeting of stockholders to be filed with the SEC pursuant to Regulation 14A by April 28, 2017 (the “Proxy Statement”) under “Nominees to Board of Directors,” “Directors Not Standing For Election” and “Executive Officers.”
Compliance with Section 16(a) of the Exchange Act
The information required by this item is incorporated by reference from a portion of the Proxy Statement under “Section 16(a) Beneficial Ownership Reporting Compliance.”
Code of Business Conduct and Ethics
We have adopted a Code of Business Conduct and Ethics (the “Code”) that is applicable to all of our employees, officers and directors. The Code is available on the Corporate Governance page of our website at www.huronconsultinggroup.com. If we make any amendments to or grant any waivers from the Code which are required to be disclosed pursuant to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, we will make such disclosures on our website.
Corporate Governance
The information required by this item is incorporated by reference from a portion of the Proxy Statement under “Board Meetings and Committees.”
ITEM 11.
EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION.
Executive Compensation
The information required by this item is incorporated by reference from a portion of the Proxy Statement under “Executive Compensation.”
Compensation Committee Interlocks and Insider Participation
The information required by this item is incorporated by reference from a portion of the Proxy Statement under “Compensation Committee Interlocks and Insider Participation.”
Compensation Committee Report
The information required by this item is incorporated by reference from a portion of the Proxy Statement under “Compensation Committee Report.”

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ITEM 12.
SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS.
Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans
The following table summarizes information as of December 31, 2016 with respect to equity compensation plans approved by shareholders. We do not have equity compensation plans that have not been approved by shareholders.
Plan Category
Number of Shares
to be Issued Upon
Exercise of
Outstanding Options
 
Weighted Average
Exercise Price of
Outstanding Options
 
Number of Shares
Remaining Available
for Future Issuance
(excluding shares in
1st column)
 
Equity compensation plans approved by shareholders (1):
 
 
 
 
 
 
2004 Omnibus Stock Plan
157,680

 
$
26.70

 

(2) 
2012 Omnibus Incentive Plan
36,617

 
$
39.19

 
758,558

 
Stock Ownership Participation Program

 
$

 
203,918

 
Equity compensation plans not approved by shareholders
N/A

 
N/A

 
N/A

 
Total
194,297

 
$
29.06

 
962,476

 
(1)
Our 2012 Omnibus Incentive Plan was approved by our shareholders at our annual meeting held on May 1, 2012, and an amendment to the 2012 Omnibus Incentive Plan to increase the number of shares reserved for issuance thereunder by 850,000 shares was approved by our shareholders at our annual meeting held on May 2, 2014. Our Stock Ownership Participation Program was approved by our shareholders at our annual meeting held on May 1, 2015. Our 2004 Omnibus Stock Plan was approved by the existing shareholders prior to our initial public offering.
(2)
Upon adoption of the 2012 Omnibus Incentive Plan, we terminated the 2004 Omnibus Stock Plan with respect to future awards and no further awards will be granted under this plan.
Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management
The information required by this item is incorporated by reference from a portion of the Proxy Statement under “Stock Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management.”
ITEM 13.
CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE.
Certain Relationships and Related Transactions
The information required by this item is incorporated by reference from a portion of the Proxy Statement under “Certain Relationships and Related Transactions.”
Director Independence
The information required by this item is incorporated by reference from portions of the Proxy Statement under “Nominees to Board of Directors,” “Directors Not Standing For Election,” and “Board Meetings and Committees.”
ITEM 14.
PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTING FEES AND SERVICES.
The information required by this item is incorporated by reference from a portion of the Proxy Statement under “Audit and Non-Audit Fees.”

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PART IV
 
ITEM 15.
EXHIBITS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES.
(a) Documents filed as part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
1.
Financial Statements—Our independent registered public accounting firm’s report and our Consolidated Financial Statements are listed below and begin on page F-1 of this Form 10-K.
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
Consolidated Balance Sheets
Consolidated Statements of Earnings and Other Comprehensive Income
Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

2.
Financial Statement Schedules—The financial statement schedules required by this item are included in the Consolidated Financial Statements and accompanying notes.
3.
Exhibit Index
 
Exhibit
Number
Exhibit Description
Filed
herewith
Furnished
herewith
Incorporated by Reference
Form
Period
Ending
Exhibit
Filing Date
2.1
Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of January 26, 2015, by and among Huron Consulting Group Inc., Texas Acquisition Inc., Studer Holdings, Inc. and Fortis Advisors LLC, solely in the capacity as stockholders’ and optionholders’ representative thereunder.
 
 
8-K
 
2.1
2/13/2015
2.2
Purchase Agreement, dated as of December 10, 2015, by and among Huron Consulting Group Inc., Huron Consulting Services LLC, Huron Consulting Group Holdings LLC, and Consilio, Inc.
 
 
8-K
 
2.1
1/7/2016
3.1
Third Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of Huron Consulting Group Inc.
 
 
10-K
12/31/2004
3.1
2/16/2005
3.2
Amended and Restated Bylaws of Huron Consulting Group Inc.
 
 
8-K
 
3.1
10/28/2015
4.1
Specimen Stock Certificate.
 
 
S-1
(File No. 333-
115434)
 
4.1
10/5/2004
4.2
Indenture (including Form of Note) with respect to the Company’s 1.25% Convertible Senior Notes due 2019, dated as of September 10, 2014, between Huron Consulting Group Inc. and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee.
 
 
8-K
 
10.1
9/16/2014
10.1
Office Lease, dated December 2003, between Union Tower, LLC and Huron Consulting Services LLC (formerly known as Huron Consulting Group LLC).
 
 
S-1
(File No. 333-
115434)
 
10.1
10/5/2004
10.2*
Amended and Restated Huron Consulting Group Inc. 2004 Omnibus Stock Plan.
 
 
S-8
 
10.1
5/5/2010
10.3*
Huron Consulting Group Inc. Deferred Compensation Plan as Amended and Restated effective January 1, 2009.
 
 
10-K
12/31/2008
10.12
2/24/2009
10.4*
Senior Management Agreement by and between Huron Consulting Group Inc. and John D. Kelly.
 
 
8-K
 
10.1
1/6/2017

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Exhibit
Number
Exhibit Description
Filed
herewith
Furnished
herewith
Incorporated by Reference
Form
Period
Ending
Exhibit
Filing Date
10.5*
Amended and Restated Senior Management Agreement by and between Huron Consulting Group Inc. and James H. Roth.
 
 
8-K
 
10.2
1/6/2017
10.6*
Senior Management Agreement by and between Huron Consulting Group Inc. and C. Mark Hussey.
 
 
8-K
 
10.3
1/6/2017
10.7*
Senior Management Agreement by and between Huron Consulting Group Inc. and Diane E. Ratekin.
 
 
8-K
 
10.4
1/6/2017
10.8
First Amendment to Lease by and between Huron Consulting Services LLC and Union Tower, LLC, dated August 23, 2004.
 
 
10-K
12/31/2012
10.17
2/21/2013
10.9
Second Amendment to Lease by and between Huron Consulting Services LLC and Union Tower, LLC, dated March 14, 2007.
 
 
10-K
12/31/2012
10.18
2/21/2013
10.10
Third Amendment to Lease by and between Huron Consulting Services LLC and Union Tower, LLC, dated April 2, 2010.
 
 
10-K
12/31/2012
10.19
2/21/2013
10.11
Fourth Amendment to Lease by and between Huron Consulting Services LLC and Union Tower, LLC, dated December 31, 2012.
 
 
8-K
 
10.1
1/4/2013
10.12*
Form of the Huron Consulting Group Inc. 2012 Omnibus Incentive Plan Restricted Stock Agreement.
 
 
10-K
12/31/2012
10.20
2/21/2013
10.13
Purchase Agreement, dated as of September 4, 2014, between Huron Consulting Group Inc. and Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated and J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, as Representatives of the several Initial Purchasers.
 
 
8-K
 
10.1
9/5/2014
10.14
Base Convertible Bond Hedge Transaction Confirmation, dated as of September 4, 2014, by and between Huron Consulting Group Inc. and Bank of America, N.A.
 
 
8-K
 
10.2
9/5/2014
10.15
Base Convertible Bond Hedge Transaction Confirmation, dated as of September 4, 2014, by and between Huron Consulting Group Inc. and J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, as an agent for JPMorgan Chase Bank, National Association, London Branch.
 
 
8-K
 
10.3
9/5/2014
10.16
Base Issuer Warrant Transaction Confirmation, dated as of September 4, 2014, by and between Huron Consulting Group Inc. and Bank of America, N.A.
 
 
8-K
 
10.4
9/5/2014
10.17
Base Issuer Warrant Transaction Confirmation, dated as of September 4, 2014, by and between Huron Consulting Group Inc. and J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, as an agent for JPMorgan Chase Bank, National Association, London Branch.
 
 
8-K
 
10.5
9/5/2014
10.18
Additional Convertible Bond Hedge Transaction Confirmation, dated as of September 10, 2014, by and between Huron Consulting Group Inc. and Bank of America, N.A.
 
 
8-K
 
10.1
9/16/2014

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Exhibit
Number
Exhibit Description
Filed
herewith
Furnished
herewith
Incorporated by Reference
Form
Period
Ending
Exhibit
Filing Date
10.19
Additional Convertible Bond Hedge Transaction Confirmation, dated as of September 10, 2014, by and between Huron Consulting Group Inc. and J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, as an agent for JPMorgan Chase Bank, National Association, London Branch.
 
 
8-K
 
10.2
9/16/2014